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Genesis 36

36
1And these [are] births of Esau, who [is] Edom.
2Esau hath taken his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon the Hivite,
3and Bashemath daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebajoth.
4And Adah beareth to Esau, Eliphaz; and Bashemath hath born Reuel;
5and Aholibamah hath born Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah. These [are] sons of Esau, who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6And Esau taketh his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance which he hath acquired in the land of Canaan, and goeth into the country from the face of Jacob his brother;
7for their substance was more abundant than to dwell together, and the land of their sojournings was not able to bear them because of their cattle;
8and Esau dwelleth in mount Seir: Esau is Edom.
9And these [are] births of Esau, father of Edom, in mount Seir.
10These [are] the names of the sons of Esau: Eliphaz son of Adah, wife of Esau; Reuel son of Bashemath, wife of Esau.
11And the sons of Eliphaz are Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam, and Kenaz;
12and Timnath hath been concubine to Eliphaz son of Esau, and she beareth to Eliphaz, Amalek; these [are] sons of Adah wife of Esau.
13And these [are] sons of Reuel: Nahath and Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah; these were sons of Bashemath wife of Esau.
14And these have been the sons of Aholibamah daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, wife of Esau; and she beareth to Esau, Jeush and Jaalam and Korah.
15These [are] chiefs of the sons of Esau: sons of Eliphaz, first-born of Esau: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz,
16chief Korah, chief Gatam, chief Amalek; these [are] chiefs of Eliphaz, in the land of Edom; these [are] sons of Adah.
17And these [are] sons of Reuel son of Esau: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah; these [are] chiefs of Reuel, in the land of Edom; these [are] sons of Bashemath wife of Esau.
18And these [are] sons of Aholibamah wife of Esau: chief Jeush, chief Jaalam, chief Korah; these [are] chiefs of Aholibamah daughter of Anah, wife of Esau.
19These [are] sons of Esau (who [is] Edom), and these their chiefs.
20These [are] sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah,
21and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan; these [are] chiefs of the Horites, sons of Seir, in the land of Edom.
22And the sons of Lotan are Hori and Heman; and a sister of Lotan [is] Timna.
23And these [are] sons of Shobal: Alvan and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho and Onam.
24And these [are] sons of Zibeon, both Ajah and Anah: it [is] Anah that hath found the Imim in the wilderness, in his feeding the asses of Zibeon his father.
25And these [are] sons of Anah: Dishon, and Aholibamah daughter of Anah.
26And these [are] sons of Dishon: Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran.
27These [are] sons of Ezer: Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan.
28These [are] sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29These [are] chiefs of the Horite: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah,
30chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan: these [are] chiefs of the Horite in reference to their chiefs in the land of Seir.
31And these [are] the kings who have reigned in the land of Edom before the reigning of a king over the sons of Israel.
32And Bela son of Beor reigneth in Edom, and the name of his city [is] Dinhabah;
33and Bela dieth, and reign in his stead doth Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah;
34and Jobab dieth, and reign in his stead doth Husham from the land of the Temanite.
35And Husham dieth, and reign in his stead doth Hadad son of Bedad (who smiteth Midian in the field of Moab), and the name of his city [is] Avith;
36and Hadad dieth, and reign in his stead doth Samlah of Masrekah;
37and Samlah dieth, and reign in his stead doth Saul from Rehoboth of the River;
38and Saul dieth, and reign in his stead doth Baal-hanan son of Achbor;
39and Baal-hanan son of Achbor dieth, and reign in his stead doth Hadar, and the name of his city [is] Pau; and his wife's name [is] Mehetabel daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezahab.
40And these [are] the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timnah, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth,
41chief Aholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon,
42chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar,
43chief Magdiel, chief Iram: these [are] chiefs of Edom, in reference to their dwellings, in the land of their possession; he [is] Esau father of Edom.
36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.