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Genesis 10

10
The Descendants of Noah's Sons
(1 Chronicles 1.5-23)
1These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. These three had sons after the flood.
2The sons of Japheth—Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras—were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names. 3The descendants of Gomer were the people of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4The descendants of Javan were the people of Elishah, Spain, Cyprus, and Rhodes; 5they were the ancestors of the people who live along the coast and on the islands. These are the descendants of Japheth, living in their different tribes and countries, each group speaking its own language.
6The sons of Ham—Cush, Egypt, Libya, and Canaan—were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names. 7The descendants of Cush were the people of Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah were the people of Sheba and Dedan. 8Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the world's first great conqueror. 9By the Lord's help he was a great hunter, and that is why people say, “May the Lord make you as great a hunter as Nimrod!” 10At first his kingdom included Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all three of them in Babylonia. 11From that land he went to Assyria and built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah, 12and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city of Calah.
13The descendants of Egypt were the people of Lydia, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, 14Pathrus, Casluh, and of Crete, from whom the Philistines are descended.#10.14: Probable text and of Crete … descended; Hebrew from whom the Philistines are descended, and Crete.
15Canaan's sons—Sidon, the oldest, and Heth—were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names. 16Canaan was also the ancestor of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. The different tribes of the Canaanites spread out, 19until the Canaanite borders reached from Sidon southward to Gerar near Gaza, and eastward to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim near Lasha. 20These are the descendants of Ham, living in their different tribes and countries, each group speaking its own language.
21Shem, the older brother of Japheth, was the ancestor of all the Hebrews. 22Shem's sons—Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram—were the ancestors of the peoples who bear their names. 23The descendants of Aram were the people of Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshek. 24Arpachshad was the father of Shelah, who was the father of Eber. 25Eber had two sons: one was named Peleg,#10.25: Peleg: This name sounds like the Hebrew for “divide.” because during his time the people of the world were divided; and the other was named Joktan. 26The descendants of Joktan were the people of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All of them were descended from Joktan. 30The land in which they lived extended from Mesha to Sephar in the eastern hill country. 31These are the descendants of Shem, living in their different tribes and countries, each group speaking its own language.
32All these peoples are the descendants of Noah, nation by nation, according to their different lines of descent. After the flood all the nations of the earth were descended from the sons of Noah.
10
1The following are the genealogies#10:1. These genealogies are repeated in 1 Chronicles 1:5-27. of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They had sons born to them after the flood.
2The sons#10:2. Note that “sons” throughout this chapter can also mean “descendants.” of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
4The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.#10:4. “Dodanim”: the Septuagint takes the spelling to be Rodanim, as does the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 1:7. Note that the last two names at least are probably those of a group of people rather than a personal name. 5The descendants of these ancestors spread throughout the coastal areas, each group having their own language, with their families developing into different nations.
6The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
7The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca.
The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush was also the father of Nimrod, who set himself up as the first tyrant on earth. 9He was a powerful fighter who defied#10:9. “Defied”: The Septuagint reads “against” or “versus.” the Lord; which is why there's the expression, “Like Nimrod, a powerful fighter who defied the Lord.” 10His kingdom began in the cities of Babel,#10:10. “Babel” or “Babylon.” Nimrod is the first person in Scripture described as having a kingdom, normally associated with an imposed rule using force. Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, all located in the land of Shinar.#10:10. “Shinar”: or “Babylonia.” 11From there he moved into Assyria#10:11. “Assyria”: in Micah 5:6 Assyria is called “the land of Nimrod.” and built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12and Resen, which lies between Nineveh and the great city of Calah.
13Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, the Anamites, the Lehabites, the Naphtuhites, 14the Pathrusites, the Casluhites, and the Caphtorites (ancestors of the Philistines).#10:14. See Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7.
15Canaan was the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of the Hittites,#10:15. “The Hittites”: literally “Heth.” 16the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.
Later the Canaanite tribes spread out 19and the territory of the Canaanites stretched from Sidon towards Gerar and all the way to Gaza, then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, all the way to Lasha. 20These were the sons of Ham according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nation.
21Shem, whose older brother#10:21. See note on 5:32. was Japheth, also had sons. Shem was the forefather of all the sons of Eber.
22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
23The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.#10:23. “Mash”: The Septuagint and 1 Chronicles 1:17 read “Meshech.”
24Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber.
25Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg,#10:25. The word means “divided.” because in his time the earth was divided; the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. These were all sons of Joktan. 30They lived in the land lying between Mesha to Sephar, in the hill country to the east.
31These were the sons of Shem, according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nations.
32These were all the tribes descended from Noah's sons, according to their genealogies and national groups. From these ancestors the different nations of the earth spread around the world after the flood.