Exit Parallel Mode
 

Genesis 3

3
Expulsion from Eden. 1Now the snake was the most cunning#Cunning: there is a play on the words for “naked” (2:25) and “cunning/wise” (Heb. ‘arum). The couple seek to be “wise” but end up knowing that they are “naked.” of all the wild animals that the Lord God had made. He asked the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You shall not eat from any of the trees in the garden’?” 2The woman answered the snake: “We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden; 3#Gn 2:17; Rom 6:23. it is only about the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden that God said, ‘You shall not eat it or even touch it, or else you will die.’” 4But the snake said to the woman: “You certainly will not die!#Wis 2:24; Sir 25:14; Is 14:14; Jn 8:44; 2 Cor 11:3. 5God knows well that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods, who know#Like gods, who know: or “like God who knows.” good and evil.” 6The woman saw that the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eyes, and the tree was desirable for gaining wisdom. So she took some of its fruit and ate it; and she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.#Gn 3:22; 1 Tm 2:14. 7Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made loincloths for themselves.
8When they heard the sound of the Lord God walking about in the garden at the breezy time of the day,#The breezy time of the day: lit., “the wind of the day.” Probably shortly before sunset. the man and his wife hid themselves from the Lord God among the trees of the garden.#Jer 23:24. 9The Lord God then called to the man and asked him: Where are you? 10He answered, “I heard you in the garden; but I was afraid, because I was naked, so I hid.” 11Then God asked: Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I had forbidden you to eat? 12The man replied, “The woman whom you put here with me—she gave me fruit from the tree, so I ate it.” 13The Lord God then asked the woman: What is this you have done? The woman answered, “The snake tricked me, so I ate it.”#2 Cor 11:3.
14Then the Lord God said to the snake:
Because you have done this,
cursed are you
among all the animals, tame or wild;
On your belly you shall crawl,
and dust you shall eat
all the days of your life.#Each of the three punishments (the snake, the woman, the man) has a double aspect, one affecting the individual and the other affecting a basic relationship. The snake previously stood upright, enjoyed a reputation for being shrewder than other creatures, and could converse with human beings as in vv. 1–5. It must now move on its belly, is more cursed than any creature, and inspires revulsion in human beings (v. 15). #Is 65:25; Mi 7:17; Rev 12:9.
15I will put enmity between you and the woman,
and between your offspring and hers;
They will strike at your head,
while you strike at their heel.#They will strike…at their heel: the antecedent for “they” and “their” is the collective noun “offspring,” i.e., all the descendants of the woman. Christian tradition has seen in this passage, however, more than unending hostility between snakes and human beings. The snake was identified with the devil (Wis 2:24; Jn 8:44; Rev 12:9; 20:2), whose eventual defeat seemed implied in the verse. Because “the Son of God was revealed to destroy the works of the devil” (1 Jn 3:8), the passage was understood as the first promise of a redeemer for fallen humankind, the protoevangelium. Irenaeus of Lyons (ca. A.D. 130–200), in his Against Heresies 5.21.1, followed by several other Fathers of the Church, interpreted the verse as referring to Christ, and cited Gal 3:19 and 4:4 to support the reference. Another interpretive translation is ipsa, “she,” and is reflected in Jerome’s Vulgate. “She” was thought to refer to Mary, the mother of the messiah. In Christian art Mary is sometimes depicted with her foot on the head of the serpent. #Rom 16:20; 1 Jn 3:8; Rev 12:17.
16To the woman he said:
I will intensify your toil in childbearing;
in pain#Toil…pain: the punishment affects the woman directly by increasing the toil and pain of having children. He shall rule over you: the punishment also affects the woman’s relationship with her husband. A tension is set up in which her urge (either sexual urge or, more generally, dependence for sustenance) is for her husband but he rules over her. But see Sg 7:11. you shall bring forth children.
Yet your urge shall be for your husband,
and he shall rule over you.
17To the man he said: Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, You shall not eat from it,
Cursed is the ground#Cursed is the ground: the punishment affects the man’s relationship to the ground (’adam and ’adamah). You are dust: the punishment also affects the man directly insofar as he is now mortal. because of you!
In toil you shall eat its yield
all the days of your life.#Gn 5:29; Rom 5:12; 8:20; Heb 6:8.
18Thorns and thistles it shall bear for you,
and you shall eat the grass of the field.
19By the sweat of your brow
you shall eat bread,
Until you return to the ground,
from which you were taken;
For you are dust,
and to dust you shall return.#Gn 2:7; Jb 10:9; 34:15; Ps 90:3; 103:14; Eccl 3:20; 12:7; Wis 15:8; Sir 10:9; 17:2; Rom 5:12; 1 Cor 15:21; Heb 9:27.
20The man gave his wife the name “Eve,” because she was the mother of all the living.#The man gives his wife a more specific name than “woman” (2:23). The Hebrew name hawwa (“Eve”) is related to the Hebrew word hay (“living”); “mother of all the living” points forward to the next episode involving her sons Cain and Abel.
21The Lord God made for the man and his wife garments of skin, with which he clothed them. 22Then the Lord God said: See! The man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil! Now, what if he also reaches out his hand to take fruit from the tree of life, and eats of it and lives forever?#Gn 2:9; Rev 22:2, 14. 23The Lord God therefore banished him from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he had been taken. 24He expelled the man, stationing the cherubim and the fiery revolving sword east of the garden of Eden, to guard the way to the tree of life.
3
The Fall
1Now the serpent was more crafty than any other wild animal#Literally “animal of the field” which Yahweh God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God indeed say, ‘You shall not eat from any tree in the garden’?” 2The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat, 3but from the tree that is in the midst of the garden, God said, ‘You shall not eat from it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die’.” 4But the serpent said to the woman, “You shall not surely die. 5For God knows that on the day you both eat from it, then your eyes will be opened and you both shall be like gods,#The plural is in the context of v. 22 “one of us” and the plural suffix pronouns 〚“you all”〛 throughout the verse knowing good and evil.” 6When#Or “And” the woman saw that the tree was good for food and that it was a delight to the eyes, and the tree was desirable to make one wise, then#Or “and” she took from its fruit and she ate. And she gave it also to her husband with her, and he ate. 7Then#Or “And” the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked. And they sewed together fig leaves and they made for themselves coverings.
8Then#Or “And” they heard the sound of Yahweh God walking in the garden at the windy time of day.#Literally “at the wind of the day” And the man#“The man” indicates the noun is singular and occurs with the definite article and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Yahweh God among the trees of the garden. 9And Yahweh God called to the man#“The man” indicates the noun is singular and occurs with the definite article and said to him, “Where are you?” 10And he replied,#Literally “And he said”; “replied” distinguishes Adam as the speaker “I heard the sound of you in the garden, and I was afraid because I am naked, so I hid myself.” 11Then he#That is, Yahweh God asked,#Or “said” “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree from which I forbade you to eat?”#Literally “the tree which I commanded to not eat from it” 12And the man#“The man” indicates the noun is singular and occurs with the definite article replied,#Or “said” “The woman whom you gave to be with me—she gave to me from the tree and I ate.” 13Then#Or “And” Yahweh God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” 14Then#Or “And” Yahweh God said to the serpent,
“Because you have done this,
you will be cursed
more than any domesticated animal
and more than any wild animal.#Literally “animal of the earth/land”
On your belly you shall go
and dust you shall eat
all the days of your life.
15And I will put hostility
between you and between the woman,
and between your offspring#Literally “seed” and between her offspring;#Literally “seed”
he will strike you on the head,
and you will strike him on the heel.”
16To the woman he said,
“I will greatly increase
your pain in childbearing;#Literally “your pain and your childbearing”
in pain you shall bear children.
And to your husband shall be your desire.
And he shall rule over you.”
17And to Adam#The noun lacks the definite article and is taken as a proper noun in this context he said, “Because you listened to the voice of your wife and you ate from the tree from which I forbade you to eat,#Literally “from the tree which I commanded saying not to eat from it”
the ground shall be cursed on your account.
In pain you shall eat from it
all the days of your life.
18And thorns and thistles shall sprout for you,
and you shall eat the plants of the field.
19By the sweat of your brow#Literally “your face”
you shall eat bread,
until your return to the ground.
For from it you were taken;
for you are dust,
and to dust you shall return.”
20And the man#“The man” indicates the noun is singular and occurs with the definite article named#Literally “called the name” his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all life. 21And Yahweh God made for Adam#The noun lacks the definite article and is taken as a proper noun in this context and for his wife garments of skin, and he clothed them.
22And Yahweh God said, “Look—the man has become as one of us, to know good and evil. What if#Literally “And now lest” he stretches out his hand and takes also from the tree of life and eats, and lives forever?” 23And Yahweh God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken. 24So#Or “And” he drove the man out, and placed cherubim east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming, turning sword#Literally “a flame of the sword which was turning” to guard the way to the tree of life.