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Genesis 17

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Covenant of Circumcision.#The Priestly source gathers the major motifs of the story so far and sets them firmly within a covenant context; the word “covenant” occurs thirteen times. There are links to the covenant with Noah (v. 1 = 6:9; v. 7 = 9:9; v. 11 = 9:12–17). In this chapter, vv. 1–8 promise progeny and land; vv. 9–14 are instructions about circumcision; vv. 15–21 repeat the promise of a son to Sarah and distinguish this promise from that to Hagar; vv. 22–27 describe Abraham’s carrying out the commands. The Almighty: traditional rendering of Hebrew El Shaddai, which is P’s favorite designation of God in the period of the ancestors. Its etymology is uncertain, but its root meaning is probably “God, the One of the Mountains.” 1When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram and said: I am God the Almighty. Walk in my presence and be blameless.#Gn 35:11; Ex 6:3. 2Between you and me I will establish my covenant, and I will multiply you exceedingly.#Gn 12:2; 13:16; Ex 32:13.
3Abram fell face down and God said to him: 4For my part, here is my covenant with you: you are to become the father of a multitude of nations.#Sir 44:21; Rom 4:17. 5No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham,#Abram and Abraham are merely two forms of the same name, both meaning, “the father is exalted”; another variant form is Abiram (Nm 16:1; 1 Kgs 16:34). The additional -ha- in the form Abraham is explained by popular etymology as coming from ab-hamon goyim, “father of a multitude of nations.” for I am making you the father of a multitude of nations.#Neh 9:7. 6I will make you exceedingly fertile; I will make nations of you; kings will stem from you. 7I will maintain my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you throughout the ages as an everlasting covenant, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.#Ps 105:42; Lk 1:72–73; Gal 3:16. 8I will give to you and to your descendants after you the land in which you are now residing as aliens, the whole land of Canaan, as a permanent possession; and I will be their God.#Ex 32:13; Dt 1:8; 14:2; Lk 1:55; Acts 7:5. 9God said to Abraham: For your part, you and your descendants after you must keep my covenant throughout the ages. 10This is the covenant between me and you and your descendants after you that you must keep: every male among you shall be circumcised.#Circumcised: circumcision was widely practiced in the ancient world, usually as an initiation rite for males at puberty. By shifting the time of circumcision to the eighth day after birth, biblical religion made it no longer a “rite of passage” but the sign of the eternal covenant between God and the community descending from Abraham. #Jn 7:22; Acts 7:8; Rom 4:11. 11Circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. That will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.#Sir 44:20. 12Throughout the ages, every male among you, when he is eight days old, shall be circumcised, including houseborn slaves and those acquired with money from any foreigner who is not of your descendants.#Lv 12:3; Lk 1:59; 2:21. 13Yes, both the houseborn slaves and those acquired with money must be circumcised. Thus my covenant will be in your flesh as an everlasting covenant. 14If a male is uncircumcised, that is, if the flesh of his foreskin has not been cut away, such a one will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant.
15God further said to Abraham: As for Sarai your wife, do not call her Sarai; her name will be Sarah.#Sarai and Sarah are variant forms of the same name, both meaning “princess.” 16I will bless her, and I will give you a son by her. Her also will I bless; she will give rise to nations, and rulers of peoples will issue from her.#Gn 18:10; Gal 4:23. 17Abraham fell face down and laughed#Laughed: yishaq, which is also the Hebrew form of the name “Isaac”; similar explanations of the name are given in Gn 18:12 and 21:6. as he said to himself, “Can a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Can Sarah give birth at ninety?”#Rom 4:19; Heb 11:11–12. 18So Abraham said to God, “If only Ishmael could live in your favor!” 19God replied: Even so, your wife Sarah is to bear you a son, and you shall call him Isaac. It is with him that I will maintain my covenant as an everlasting covenant and with his descendants after him.#Gn 11:30; 21:2; Ex 32:13; Sir 44:22. 20Now as for Ishmael, I will heed you: I hereby bless him. I will make him fertile and will multiply him exceedingly. He will become the father of twelve chieftains, and I will make of him a great nation.#Gn 16:10; 21:13, 18; 25:12–16. 21But my covenant I will maintain with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you by this time next year.#Gn 18:14; 21:2; 26:2–5; Rom 9:7. 22When he had finished speaking with Abraham, God departed from him.
23Then Abraham took his son Ishmael and all his slaves, whether born in his house or acquired with his money—every male among the members of Abraham’s household—and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins on that same day, as God had told him to do. 24Abraham was ninety-nine years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised,#Gn 17:10; Rom 4:11. 25and his son Ishmael was thirteen years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised. 26Thus, on that same day Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised; 27and all the males of his household, including the slaves born in his house or acquired with his money from foreigners, were circumcised with him.
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1And when Avram was ninety and nine shanah, Hashem appeared to Avram, and said unto him, I am El Shaddai; walk before Me, and be thou tamim (blameless). 2And I will confirm My brit (covenant) between Me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. 3And Avram fell on his face; and Elohim talked with him, saying, 4As for Me, hinei, My brit (covenant) is with thee, and thou shalt be an Av of many Goyim [see 18:18]. 5Neither shall thy shem any more be called Avram, but thy shem shall be Avraham; for Av hamon Goyim (Father of a multitude of Goyim) have I made thee. [T.N. Ga 3:29 says "And if you belong to Moshiach (YESHAYAH 53:10), then you are of the ZERAH of Avraham Avinu, you are yoreshim (heirs) according to the havtachah (promise).] 6And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make Goyim of thee, and Melechim shall come out of thee. 7And I will establish My Brit (covenant) between Me and thee and thy zera after thee in their dorot for a Brit Olam, to be Elohim unto thee, and to thy zera after thee. 8And I will give unto thee, and to thy zera after thee, the Eretz wherein thou art now a ger, kol Eretz Kena'an, for an Achuzzah (Possession) Olam (Everlasting); and I will be their Elohim. 9And Elohim said unto Avraham, Thou shalt be shomer over My Brit therefore, thou, and thy zera after thee in the dorot. 10This is My Brit (covenant), which ye shall be shomer over, between Me and you and thy zera after thee; every zachar among you shall be circumcised. 11And ye shall circumcise the basar of your arelah; and it shall be an ot brit (sign of the covenant) between Me and you. 12And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every zachar in your dorot, he that is born in the bais, or bought with kesef of any foreigner, which is not of thy zera. 13He that is born in thy bais, and he that is bought with thy kesef, must be circumcised; and My Brit shall be in your basar for a Brit Olam. 14And the arel (uncircumcised) zachar whose basar of his arelah (foreskin) is not circumcised, that nefesh shall be cut off from his people; My Brit hefer (he broke). 15And Elohim said unto Avraham, As for Sarai thy isha, thou shalt not call her shem Sarai, but Sarah (Princess) shall her shem be. 16And I will bless her, and give thee ben also of her; yes, will bless her, and she shall give rise to Goyim; melechim of peoples shall be from her. 17Then Avraham fell upon his face, and yitzchak (laughed), and said in his lev, Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred shanah? And shall Sarah, that is ninety shanah, bear? 18And Avraham said unto HaElohim, O that Yishmael might live before Thee! 19And Elohim said, Sarah thy isha shall bear thee ben indeed; and thou shalt call shmo Yitzchak; and I will establish My Brit (covenant) with him for a Brit Olam, and with his zera after him. 20And as for Yishmael, I have heard thee; hinei, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve nasi'im (princes, rulers) shall he father, and I will make him a goy gadol (great nation). 21But My Brit (covenant) will I establish with Yitzchak, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at mo'ed hazeh (this set time) next year. 22And He left off speaking with him, and Elohim went up from Avraham. 23And Avraham took Yishmael bno, and all that were born in his bais, and all that were bought with his kesef, every zachar among the men of Avraham's bais; and circumcised the basar of their arelah in the very same day, as Elohim had said unto him. 24And Avraham was ninety shanah and nine, when he was circumcised in the basar of his arelah. 25And Yishmael bno was thirteen shanah, when he was circumcised in the basar of his arelah (foreskin). 26In the very same day was Avraham circumcised, and Yishmael bno. 27And all the men of his bais, born in the bais, and bought with kesef of the foreigner, were circumcised with him.