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Genesis 12

12
Abram’s Call and Migration. 1The Lord said to Abram: Go forth#Go forth…find blessing in you: the syntax of the Hebrew suggests that the blessings promised to Abraham are contingent on his going to Canaan. from your land, your relatives, and from your father’s house to a land that I will show you.#Acts 7:3; Heb 11:8. 2#The call of Abraham begins a new history of blessing (18:18; 22:15–18), which is passed on in each instance to the chosen successor (26:2–4; 28:14). This call evokes the last story in the primeval history (11:1–9) by reversing its themes: Abraham goes forth rather than settle down; it is God rather than Abraham who will make a name for him; the families of the earth will find blessing in him. I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, so that you will be a blessing.#Gn 17:6; Sir 44:20–21; Rom 4:17–22. 3#Gn 18:18; 22:18; Acts 3:25; Gal 3:8. I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you. All the families of the earth will find blessing in you.#Will find blessing in you: the Hebrew conjugation of the verb here and in 18:18 and 28:14 can be either reflexive (“shall bless themselves by you” = people will invoke Abraham as an example of someone blessed by God) or passive (“by you all the families of earth will be blessed” = the religious privileges of Abraham and his descendants ultimately will be extended to the nations). In 22:18 and 26:4, another conjugation of the same verb is used in a similar context that is undoubtedly reflexive (“bless themselves”). Many scholars suggest that the two passages in which the sense is clear should determine the interpretation of the three ambiguous passages: the privileged blessing enjoyed by Abraham and his descendants will awaken in all peoples the desire to enjoy those same blessings. Since the term is understood in a passive sense in the New Testament (Acts 3:25; Gal 3:8), it is rendered here by a neutral expression that admits of both meanings.
4#Gn 11:31; Jos 24:3; Acts 7:4. Abram went as the Lord directed him, and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran. 5#The ancestors appear in Genesis as pastoral nomads living at the edge of settled society, and having occasional dealings with the inhabitants, sometimes even moving into towns for brief periods. Unlike modern nomads such as the Bedouin, however, ancient pastoralists fluctuated between following the herds and sedentary life, depending on circumstances. Pastoralists could settle down and farm and later resume a pastoral way of life. Indeed, there was a symbiotic relationship between pastoralists and villagers, each providing goods to the other. Persons: servants and others who formed the larger household under the leadership of Abraham; cf. 14:14. Abram took his wife Sarai, his brother’s son Lot, all the possessions that they had accumulated, and the persons they had acquired in Haran, and they set out for the land of Canaan. When they came to the land of Canaan, 6#Abraham’s journey to the center of the land, Shechem, then to Bethel, and then to the Negeb, is duplicated in Jacob’s journeys (33:18; 35:1, 6, 27; 46:1) and in the general route of the conquest under Joshua (Jos 7:2; 8:9, 30). Abraham’s journey is a symbolic “conquest” of the land he has been promised. In building altars here (vv. 7, 8) and elsewhere, Abraham acknowledges his God as Lord of the land. Abram passed through the land as far as the sacred place at Shechem, by the oak of Moreh. The Canaanites were then in the land.
7The Lord appeared to Abram and said: To your descendants I will give this land. So Abram built an altar there to the Lord who had appeared to him.#Ex 33:1; Dt 34:4; Acts 7:5. 8From there he moved on to the hill country east of Bethel, pitching his tent with Bethel to the west and Ai to the east. He built an altar there to the Lord and invoked the Lord by name. 9Then Abram journeyed on by stages to the Negeb.#The Negeb: the semidesert land south of Judah.
Abram and Sarai in Egypt.#12:10–13:1] Abraham and Sarah’s sojourn in Egypt and encounter with Pharaoh foreshadow their descendants’ experience, suggesting a divine design in which they must learn to trust. The story of Sarah, the ancestor in danger, is told again in chap. 20, and also in 26:1–11 with Rebekah instead of Sarah. Repetition of similar events is not unusual in literature that has been orally shaped. 10There was famine in the land; so Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there, since the famine in the land was severe.#Gn 26:1. 11When he was about to enter Egypt, he said to his wife Sarai: “I know that you are a beautiful woman. 12When the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘She is his wife’; then they will kill me, but let you live. 13Please say, therefore, that you are my sister,#You are my sister: the text does not try to excuse Abraham’s deception, though in 20:12 a similar deception is somewhat excused. so that I may fare well on your account and my life may be spared for your sake.”#Gn 20:12–13; 26:7. 14When Abram arrived in Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful. 15When Pharaoh’s officials saw her they praised her to Pharaoh, and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house. 16Abram fared well on her account, and he acquired sheep, oxen, male and female servants, male and female donkeys, and camels.#Camels: domesticated camels did not come into common use in the ancient Near East until the end of the second millennium B.C. Thus the mention of camels here (24:11–64; 30:43; 31:17, 34; 32:8, 16; 37:25) is seemingly an anachronism.
17But the Lord struck Pharaoh and his household with severe plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife.#Ps 105:14. 18Then Pharaoh summoned Abram and said to him: “How could you do this to me! Why did you not tell me she was your wife? 19Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her for my wife? Now, here is your wife. Take her and leave!”
20Then Pharaoh gave his men orders concerning Abram, and they sent him away, with his wife and all that belonged to him.
12
1Now the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate) had said unto Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation), Get youi out of youri country, and from youri family, and from youri father’s house, unto a land that I will show youi:
2And I will make of youi a great nation, and I will bless youi, and make youri name great; and youi shall be a blessing:
3And I will bless them that bless youi, and curse him that curses youi: and in youi shall all families of the earth be Blessed (Favored by God; happy; prosperous).
4So Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) departed, as the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate) had spoken unto him; and Lot (Covering) went with him: and Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) [was] seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran [mountaineer] (Mountaineer or Mountainous).
5And Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) took Sarai (My Princess) his wife, and Lot (Covering) his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran [mountaineer] (Mountaineer or Mountainous); and they went forth to go into the land of Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues); and into the land of Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues) they came.
6And Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) passed through the land unto the place of Sh’khem [back or shoulder, portion] (Shoulder), unto the plain of Giv’at-Moreh [Hill of Teacher] (teacher). And the Kena’ani (merchants; traders; or those that humble and subdue) [was] then in the land.
7And the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate) appeared unto Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation), and said, Unto youri seed will I give this land: and there built He an altar unto the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate), who appeared unto him.
8And he removed from there unto a mountain on the east of Beit-El (House of EL the Powerful God), and pitched his tent, [having] Beit-El (House of EL the Powerful God) on the west, and ‘‘Ai [Heap of Ruins] (ruin) on the east: and there He built an altar unto the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate), and called upon the name of the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate).
9And Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) journeyed, going on still toward the south.
10And there was a famine in the land: and Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) went down into Mitzrayim [Egypt] (Double Distress or Double Stronghold, Black Land) to sojourn there; for the famine [was] grievous in the land.
11And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Mitzrayim [Egypt] (Double Distress or Double Stronghold, Black Land), that he said unto Sarai (My Princess) his wife, Behold now, I know that youi are a fair woman to look upon:
12Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Mitzrayimot [Egyptians] (People of the Black Land) shall see youi, that they shall say, This [is] his wife: and they will kill me, but they will save youi alive.
13Say, I pray youi, youi are my sister: that it may be well with me for youri sake; and my soul shall live because of youi.
14And it came to pass, that, when Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) was come into Mitzrayim [Egypt] (Double Distress or Double Stronghold, Black Land), the Mitzrayimot [Egyptians] (People of the Black Land) beheld the woman that she [was] very fair.
15The princes also of Pharaoh (Great House) saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh (Great House): and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s (Great House) house.
16And he entreated Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he donkeys, and menservants, and maidservants, and she donkeys, and camels.
17And the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate) plagued Pharaoh (Great House) and his house with great plagues because of Sarai (My Princess) Avram’s (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation) wife.
18And Pharaoh (Great House) called Avram (Exalted Father; Father Of Elevation), and said, What [is] this [that] youi have done unto me? why did youi not tell me that she [was youri] wife?
19Why [did youi] say, She [is] my sister? so I might have taken her to me to wife: now therefore behold youri wife, take [her], and go youri way.
20And Pharaoh (Great House) commanded [his] men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.