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Genesis 10

10
Table of the Nations.#Verse 1 is the fourth of the Priestly formulas (2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 11:10) that structure Part I of Genesis; it introduces 10:2–11:9, the populating of the world and the building of the city. In a sense, chaps. 4–9 are concerned with the first of the two great commands given to the human race in 1:28, “Be fertile and multiply,” whereas chaps. 10–11 are concerned with the second command, “Fill the earth and subdue it.” (“Subdue it” refers to each nation’s taking the land assigned to it by God.) Gn 9:19 already noted that all nations are descended from the three sons of Noah; the same sentiment is repeated in 10:5, 18, 25, 32; 11:8. The presupposition of the chapter is that every nation has a land assigned to it by God (cf. Dt 32:8–9). The number of the nations is seventy (if one does not count Noah and his sons, and counts Sidon [vv. 15, 19] only once), which is a traditional biblical number (Jgs 8:30; Lk 10:1, 17). According to Gn 46:27 and Ex 1:5, Israel also numbered seventy persons, which shows that it in some sense represents the nations of the earth.This chapter classifies the various peoples known to the ancient Israelites; it is theologically important as stressing the basic family unity of all peoples on earth. It is sometimes called the Table of the Nations. The relationship between the various peoples is based on linguistic, geographic, or political grounds (v. 31). In general, the descendants of Japheth (vv. 2–5) are the peoples of the Indo-European languages to the north and west of Mesopotamia and Syria; the descendants of Ham (vv. 6–20) are the Hamitic-speaking peoples of northern Africa; and the descendants of Shem (vv. 21–31) are the Semitic-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia, Syria and Arabia. But there are many exceptions to this rule; the Semitic-speaking peoples of Canaan are considered descendants of Ham, because at one time they were subject to Hamitic Egypt (vv. 6, 15–19). This chapter is generally considered to be a composite from the Yahwist source (vv. 8–19, 21, 24–30) and the Priestly source (vv. 1–7, 20, 22–23, 31–32). Presumably that is why certain tribes of Arabia are listed under both Ham (v. 7) and Shem (vv. 26–28). 1These are the descendants of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, to whom children were born after the flood.
2#1 Chr 1:5–10. The descendants of Japheth: Gomer,#Gomer: the Cimmerians; Madai: the Medes; Javan: the Greeks. Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.#Ez 38:2. 3The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz,#Ashkenaz: an Indo-European people, which later became the medieval rabbinic name for Germany. It now designates one of the great divisions of Judaism, Eastern European Yiddish-speaking Jews. Diphath and Togarmah. 4The descendants of Javan: Elishah,#Elishah: Cyprus; the Kittim: certain inhabitants of Cyprus; the Rodanim: the inhabitants of Rhodes. Tarshish, the Kittim and the Rodanim. 5From these branched out the maritime nations.
These are the descendants of Japheth by their lands, each with its own language, according to their clans, by their nations.
6The descendants of Ham: Cush,#Cush: biblical Ethiopia, modern Nubia. Mizraim: Lower (i.e., northern) Egypt; Put: either Punt in East Africa or Libya. Mizraim, Put and Canaan. 7The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush#Cush: here seems to be Cossea, the country of the Kassites; see note on 2:10–14. Nimrod: possibly Tukulti-Ninurta I (thirteenth century B.C.), the first Assyrian conqueror of Babylonia and a famous city-builder at home. became the father of Nimrod, who was the first to become a mighty warrior on earth. 9He was a mighty hunter in the eyes of the Lord; hence the saying, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter in the eyes of the Lord.” 10His kingdom originated in Babylon, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.#Shinar: the land of ancient Babylonia, embracing Sumer and Akkad, present-day southern Iraq, mentioned also in 11:2; 14:1. 11From that land he went forth to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir#Rehoboth-Ir: lit., “wide-streets city,” was probably not the name of another city, but an epithet of Nineveh; cf. Jon 3:3. and Calah, 12as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calah,#Calah: Assyrian Kalhu, the capital of Assyria in the ninth century B.C. the latter being the principal city.
13#1 Chr 1:11–16. Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, 14the Pathrusim,#The Pathrusim: the people of Upper (southern) Egypt; cf. Is 11:11; Jer 44:1; Ez 29:14; 30:13. Caphtorim: Crete; for Caphtor as the place of origin of the Philistines, cf. Dt 2:23; Am 9:7; Jer 47:4. the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim from whom the Philistines came.
15Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of Heth;#Heth: the biblical Hittites; see note on 23:3. 16also of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward, the clans of the Canaanites spread out, 19so that the Canaanite borders extended from Sidon all the way to Gerar, near Gaza, and all the way to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, near Lasha.
20These are the descendants of Ham, according to their clans, according to their languages, by their lands, by their nations.
21To Shem also, Japheth’s oldest brother and the ancestor of all the children of Eber,#Eber: the eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews, that is, the one to whom they traced their name. children were born. 22#1 Chr 1:17–23. The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram. 23The descendants of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash.
24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah, and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25To Eber two sons were born: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his time the world was divided;#In the Hebrew text there is a play on the name Peleg and the word niplega, “was divided.” and the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these were descendants of Joktan. 30Their settlements extended all the way from Mesha to Sephar, the eastern hill country.
31These are the descendants of Shem, according to their clans, according to their languages, by their lands, by their nations.
32These are the clans of Noah’s sons, according to their origins and by their nations. From these the nations of the earth branched out after the flood.
10
1And this is the genealogy of the sons of Noaḥ: Shĕm, Ḥam, and Yapheth. And sons were born to them after the flood.
2The sons of Yapheth: Gomer, and Maḡoḡ, and Maḏai, and Yawan, and Tuḇal, and Mesheḵ, and Tiras.
3And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Toḡarmah.
4And the sons of Yawan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Doḏanim.
5From these the coastland peoples of the nations were separated into their lands, everyone according to his language, according to their clans, into their nations.
6And the sons of Ḥam: Kush, and Mitsrayim, and Put, and Kena‛an.
7And the sons of Kush: Seḇa, and Ḥawilah, and Saḇtah, and Ra‛mah, and Saḇteḵa. And the sons of Ra‛mah: Sheḇa and Deḏan.
8And Kush brought forth Nimroḏ, he began to be a mighty one on the earth.
9He was a mighty hunter before יהוה, therefore it is said, “Like Nimroḏ the mighty hunter before יהוה.”
10And the beginning of his reign was Baḇel, and Ereḵ, and Akkaḏ, and Kalnĕh, in the land of Shin‛ar.
11From that land he went to Ashshur and built Ninewĕh, and Reḥoḇoth Ir, and Kelaḥ,
12and Resen between Ninewĕh and Kelaḥ, the great city.
13And Mitsrayim brought forth Luḏim, and Anamim, and Lehaḇim, and Naphtuḥim,
14and Pathrusim, and Kasluḥim, from whom came the Philistines and Kaphtorim.
15And Kena‛an brought forth Tsiḏon his first-born, and Ḥĕth,
16and the Yeḇusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite,
17and the Ḥiwwite, and the Arqite, and the Sinite,
18and the Arwaḏite, and the Tsemarite, and the Ḥamathite. And afterward the clans of the Kena‛anites were spread abroad.
19And the border of the Kena‛anites was from Tsiḏon as you go toward Gerar, as far as Azzah, as you go toward Seḏom, and Amorah, and Aḏmah, and Tseḇoyim, as far as Lasha.
20These were the sons of Ḥam, according to their clans, according to their languages, in their lands, in their nations.
21And also to Shĕm, the father of all the children of Ěḇer, the brother of Yapheth the elder, children were born.
22The sons of Shĕm: Ěylam, and Asshur, and Arpaḵshaḏ, and Luḏ, and Aram.
23And the sons of Aram: Uts, and Ḥul, and Gether, and Mash.
24And Arpaḵshaḏ brought forth Shelaḥ, and Shelaḥ brought forth Ěḇer.
25And to Ěḇer were born two sons, the name of one was Peleḡ, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Yoqtan.
26And Yoqtan brought forth Almoḏaḏ, and Sheleph, and Ḥatsarmaweth, and Yeraḥ,
27and Haḏoram, and Uzal, and Diqlah,
28and Oḇal, and Aḇima’ĕl, and Sheḇa,
29and Ophir, and Ḥawilah, and Yoḇaḇ. All these were sons of Yoqtan.
30And their dwelling place was from Mĕysha as you go toward Sephar, a mountain of the east.
31These were the sons of Shĕm, according to their clans, according to their languages, in their lands, according to their nations.
32These were the clans of the sons of Noaḥ, according to their generations, in their nations. And from these the nations were divided on the earth after the flood.