Exit Parallel Mode
 

Genesis 10

10
Table of the Nations.#Verse 1 is the fourth of the Priestly formulas (2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 11:10) that structure Part I of Genesis; it introduces 10:2–11:9, the populating of the world and the building of the city. In a sense, chaps. 4–9 are concerned with the first of the two great commands given to the human race in 1:28, “Be fertile and multiply,” whereas chaps. 10–11 are concerned with the second command, “Fill the earth and subdue it.” (“Subdue it” refers to each nation’s taking the land assigned to it by God.) Gn 9:19 already noted that all nations are descended from the three sons of Noah; the same sentiment is repeated in 10:5, 18, 25, 32; 11:8. The presupposition of the chapter is that every nation has a land assigned to it by God (cf. Dt 32:8–9). The number of the nations is seventy (if one does not count Noah and his sons, and counts Sidon [vv. 15, 19] only once), which is a traditional biblical number (Jgs 8:30; Lk 10:1, 17). According to Gn 46:27 and Ex 1:5, Israel also numbered seventy persons, which shows that it in some sense represents the nations of the earth.This chapter classifies the various peoples known to the ancient Israelites; it is theologically important as stressing the basic family unity of all peoples on earth. It is sometimes called the Table of the Nations. The relationship between the various peoples is based on linguistic, geographic, or political grounds (v. 31). In general, the descendants of Japheth (vv. 2–5) are the peoples of the Indo-European languages to the north and west of Mesopotamia and Syria; the descendants of Ham (vv. 6–20) are the Hamitic-speaking peoples of northern Africa; and the descendants of Shem (vv. 21–31) are the Semitic-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia, Syria and Arabia. But there are many exceptions to this rule; the Semitic-speaking peoples of Canaan are considered descendants of Ham, because at one time they were subject to Hamitic Egypt (vv. 6, 15–19). This chapter is generally considered to be a composite from the Yahwist source (vv. 8–19, 21, 24–30) and the Priestly source (vv. 1–7, 20, 22–23, 31–32). Presumably that is why certain tribes of Arabia are listed under both Ham (v. 7) and Shem (vv. 26–28). 1These are the descendants of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, to whom children were born after the flood.
2#1 Chr 1:5–10. The descendants of Japheth: Gomer,#Gomer: the Cimmerians; Madai: the Medes; Javan: the Greeks. Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.#Ez 38:2. 3The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz,#Ashkenaz: an Indo-European people, which later became the medieval rabbinic name for Germany. It now designates one of the great divisions of Judaism, Eastern European Yiddish-speaking Jews. Diphath and Togarmah. 4The descendants of Javan: Elishah,#Elishah: Cyprus; the Kittim: certain inhabitants of Cyprus; the Rodanim: the inhabitants of Rhodes. Tarshish, the Kittim and the Rodanim. 5From these branched out the maritime nations.
These are the descendants of Japheth by their lands, each with its own language, according to their clans, by their nations.
6The descendants of Ham: Cush,#Cush: biblical Ethiopia, modern Nubia. Mizraim: Lower (i.e., northern) Egypt; Put: either Punt in East Africa or Libya. Mizraim, Put and Canaan. 7The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush#Cush: here seems to be Cossea, the country of the Kassites; see note on 2:10–14. Nimrod: possibly Tukulti-Ninurta I (thirteenth century B.C.), the first Assyrian conqueror of Babylonia and a famous city-builder at home. became the father of Nimrod, who was the first to become a mighty warrior on earth. 9He was a mighty hunter in the eyes of the Lord; hence the saying, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter in the eyes of the Lord.” 10His kingdom originated in Babylon, Erech and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.#Shinar: the land of ancient Babylonia, embracing Sumer and Akkad, present-day southern Iraq, mentioned also in 11:2; 14:1. 11From that land he went forth to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir#Rehoboth-Ir: lit., “wide-streets city,” was probably not the name of another city, but an epithet of Nineveh; cf. Jon 3:3. and Calah, 12as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calah,#Calah: Assyrian Kalhu, the capital of Assyria in the ninth century B.C. the latter being the principal city.
13#1 Chr 1:11–16. Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, 14the Pathrusim,#The Pathrusim: the people of Upper (southern) Egypt; cf. Is 11:11; Jer 44:1; Ez 29:14; 30:13. Caphtorim: Crete; for Caphtor as the place of origin of the Philistines, cf. Dt 2:23; Am 9:7; Jer 47:4. the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim from whom the Philistines came.
15Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of Heth;#Heth: the biblical Hittites; see note on 23:3. 16also of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward, the clans of the Canaanites spread out, 19so that the Canaanite borders extended from Sidon all the way to Gerar, near Gaza, and all the way to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, near Lasha.
20These are the descendants of Ham, according to their clans, according to their languages, by their lands, by their nations.
21To Shem also, Japheth’s oldest brother and the ancestor of all the children of Eber,#Eber: the eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews, that is, the one to whom they traced their name. children were born. 22#1 Chr 1:17–23. The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram. 23The descendants of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash.
24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah, and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25To Eber two sons were born: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his time the world was divided;#In the Hebrew text there is a play on the name Peleg and the word niplega, “was divided.” and the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these were descendants of Joktan. 30Their settlements extended all the way from Mesha to Sephar, the eastern hill country.
31These are the descendants of Shem, according to their clans, according to their languages, by their lands, by their nations.
32These are the clans of Noah’s sons, according to their origins and by their nations. From these the nations of the earth branched out after the flood.
10
1Now these [are] the generations of the sons of Noach (Rest, Consolation), Shem (name, renown (great reputation; being well-known)), Ham (hot, heat, brown), and Yefet (enlarged; fair; persuading): and unto them were sons born after the flood.
2The sons of Yefet (enlarged; fair; persuading); Gomer [complete] (to finish; complete), and Magog [land of God] (covering; roof; dissolving), and Madai (a measure; judging; a garment), and Yavan (deceiver; one who makes sad), and Tuval (the earth; the world; confusion), and Meshekh (who is drawn by force), and Tiras (pleasing).
3And the sons of Gomer [complete]; Ashkenaz (a fire that spreads), and Rigat (remedy; medicine; release; pardon), and Togarmah [you will break her] (which is all bone).
4And the sons of Yavan; Elishah [God of the coming one] (it is God; the lamb of God: God that gives help), and Tarshish [yellow jasper] (contemplation; examination), Kittim (breaking; bruising small; gold; coloring), and Dodanim (beloved).
5By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.
6And the sons of Ham (hot, heat, brown); Kush (blackness, Cushi (Ethiopian)), and Mitzrayim [Egypt] (tribulations, Double Distress or Double Stronghold, Black Land), Mizraim, and Put (a bow, a warrior), and Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues).
7And the sons of Kush (blackness, Etheopian); S’va (a drunkard; that turn), and Havilah (that suffers pain; that brings forth), and Savta (a going about or circuiting), and Ra’amah (greatness; thunder; some sort of evil), and Savt’kha (that surrounds; that causes wounding): and the sons of Ra’amah (greatness; thunder; some sort of evil); Sh’va (oath), and D’dan (their breasts; friendship; a judge).
8And Kush (blackness, Etheopian) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) Nimrod (rebellion): he began to be a mighty one in the earth.
9He was a mighty hunter in place of [in opposition to] the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate): For what reason it is said, Even as Nimrod (rebellion) the mighty hunter in place of [in opposition to] the Lord-Yehōvah (Messiah Pre-Incarnate).
10And the beginning of his kingdom was Bavel Bavel (to jumble, or a confused medley of sounds; confusion; gate of the deity), and Erekh (to extract, or draw out), and Akkad (A vessel, pitcher, spark), and Kalneh (Our consummation; all of them), in the land of Shin’ar (Tooth Town, or City Of Wit).
11Out of that land went forth Ashur (level plain; over the flames), and built Nineveh [abode of Ninus, or Offspring’s Habitation] (Offspring’s Habitation, poss. Fish pond sacred to Ishtar/Easter/Europa), and the city Rekhovot (wide open spaces; wild places/street, City of Room; Big City), and Kelach (as new, Vigor, completion),
12And Resen (Head Of A Spring) between Nineveh [abode of Ninus, or Offspring’s Habitation] (Offspring’s Habitation, poss. Fish pond sacred to Ishtar / Easter / Europa) and Kelach (as new, Vigor, completion): the same [is] a great city.
13And Mitzrayim [Egypt] (tribulations, Double Distress or Double Stronghold, Black Land) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) Ludim (nativity, generation), and Anamim (Responding Waters), and L’havim (Flames or Blades), and Naftuchim (Openers or Engravers),
14And Patrusim (South Land of Mitzrayim [Egypt]; interpret dreams), and Kaftorim (outstretched hand; cup).
15And Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) Tzidon (hunting; fishing) his firstborn, and Het (terror),
16And the Y’vusi (Trampled Underfoot), and the Emori (The Talkers), and the Girgashi (dwelling on a clayish soil),
17And the Hivi (villagers), and the ‘Arki (to go away, to gnaw), and the Sini (thorn, sharpen; [pos. the Chinese]),
18And the Arvadi (wander, restlessly, roam), and the Tz’mari (Wooly Boys), and the Hamati (putrid, grow rancid; fortress): and afterward were the families of the Kena’ani (low/humbled ones; merchants) spread abroad.
19And the border of the Kena’ani (low/humbled ones; merchants) was from Tzidon (hunting; fishing; venison; Hunter’s Lodge, Provision Storage, Harbor Master, or even Judge Of The Si), as youi come to G’rar (a lodging place, Sojourning, slime, be a stranger, stir up wars, or be afraid, stand in awe), unto ‘Azah (Strong Place, fortified place); as youi go, unto S’dom (burning, denotes penal constrictions around the ankles), and ‘Amora (submersion, Tyrants, bind sheaves, People of Fear), and Admah (red or ruddy (reddish hair or complexion) ground), and Tzvoyim (speckled, Multifariously Colored, or Fingers), even unto Lesha (fissure; To Be Viewed, To Be Blinded, or To Be Played With; bursting forth).
20These [are] the sons of Ham (hot, burnt, heat, brown), after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, [and] in their nations.
21Unto Shem (Name or Fame; the entire essence of a person) also, the father of all the children of ‘Ever (the region beyond; pass over, through, take away; overflowing of temper: wrath and rage; fury; to be arrogant or infuriate oneself), the brother of Yefet (terror, enlarged; fair; persuading, opened; Wide Spreading) the elder, even to him were [children] born.
22The children of Shem (name, renown (great reputation; being well-known)); ‘‘Eilam [eternity] (Hidden; Young Man or Always; Perhaps alluding to hidden secrets of the future), and Ashur (level plain; over the flames), and Arpakhshad, and Lud [strife] (no real meaning in Hebrew; possibly: to turn aside; strife), and Aram (citadel, palace; elevated, lifted up).
23And the children of Aram (citadel, palace; elevated, lifted up); ‘Utz (deep contemplation on reality and justice), and Hul (be firm, endure), and Geter (Circle Of The Winepress), and Mash (Extend).
24And Arpakhshad (meaning unknown; pos. reference to a “stronghold of the Kasdim [Kasdim [clod-breakers]] [Sorcerers]) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) Shelach (Sent Out, Branch or Javelin; to prosper, rest); and Shelach (Sent Out, Branch or Javelin; to prosper, rest) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) ‘Ever (the region beyond; pass over, though, take away; overflowing of temper: wrath and rage; fury; to be arrogant or infuriate oneself).
25And unto ‘Ever (the region beyond; pass over, though, take away; overflowing of temper: wrath and rage; fury; to be arrogant or infuriate oneself) were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg (Division or Divider; specif. channel or canal); for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name [was] Yoktan (He Will Be Made Small; insignificant).
26And Yoktan (He Will Be Made Small; insignificant) begat (to be father of; be ancestor of) Almodad (Who Does God Love? or: How God Loves!), and Shelef (Drawn Out), and Hatzar-Mavet (Village Of Death; drawn out of death; mostly of a form or shape that starts out small and grows larger, like a trumpet), and Yerach (Moon; or possibly Wanderer),
27And Hadoram (Exalted Glory, or (seen as a plural) Honors/ Splendors/ Ornaments), and Uzal (Take Off or Vanish), and Diklah (Date-Tree, Palm, the idea of rocking to and fro in the air),
28And ‘Oval (To be Bare, stripped off [leaves]; No Cloud / Clear Skies), and Avima’el (What A Father Is God [EL]), and Sh’va (splinters, flame),
29And Ofir (Coast Of Riches or Mark Of Wealth; possibly: ashes, covering bandage), and Havilah (Languishing Village, or Exhausted Revelation; oneself; worship; to tell, to make known; tent, village; means collect or gather; strength; Bringing Forth, Trembling), and Yovav (To Call Shrilly): all these [were] the sons of Yoktan (He Will Be Made Small; insignificant).
30And their dwelling was from Mesha [deliverance] (Retreat; also: to feel, as in touch and recognize), as youi go unto S’far (Counting or Calculating) to the mount in the east.
31These [are] the sons of Shem (name, renown (great reputation; being well-known)), after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.
32These [are] the families of the sons of Noach (Rest, Consolation), after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.