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Berĕshith (Genesis) 35

35
1And Elohim said to Ya‛aqoḇ, “Arise, go up to Bĕyth Ěl and dwell there. And make a slaughter-place there to Ěl who appeared to you when you fled from the face of Ěsaw your brother.”
2And Ya‛aqoḇ said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign mighty ones that are among you, and cleanse yourselves, and change your garments.
3And let us arise and go up to Bĕyth Ěl, and let me make there a slaughter-place to Ěl, who answered me in the day of my distress, and has been with me in the way which I have gone.
4So they gave Ya‛aqoḇ all the foreign mighty ones which were in their hands, and all their earrings which were in their ears. And Ya‛aqoḇ hid them under the terebinth tree which was near Sheḵem.
5And they departed, and the fear of Elohim was upon the cities that were all around them, and they did not pursue the sons of Ya‛aqoḇ.
6And Ya‛aqoḇ came to Luz, that is Bĕyth Ěl, which is in the land of Kena‛an, he and all the people who were with him.
7And he built there a slaughter-place and called the place El Bĕyth Ěl, because there Elohim appeared to him when he fled from the face of his brother.
8And Deḇorah, Riḇqah’s nurse, died, and she was buried below Bĕyth Ěl under the terebinth tree. So the name of it was called Allon Baḵuth.
9And Elohim appeared to Ya‛aqoḇ again, when he came from Paddan Aram, and blessed him.
10And Elohim said to him, “Your name is Ya‛aqoḇ, your name is no longer called Ya‛aqoḇ, but Yisra’ĕl is your name.” So He called his name Yisra’ĕl.
11And Elohim said to him, “I am Ěl Shaddai. Be fruitful and increase, a nation and a company of nations shall be from you, and sovereigns come from your body.
12And the land which I gave Aḇraham and Yitsḥaq I give to you. And to your seed after you I give this land.
13And Elohim went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him.
14And Ya‛aqoḇ set up a standing column in the place where He had spoken with him, a monument of stone. And he poured a drink offering on it, and he poured oil on it.
15And Ya‛aqoḇ called the name of the place where Elohim spoke with him, Bĕyth Ěl.
16Then they set out from Bĕyth Ěl. And it came to be, when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath, that Raḥĕl began to give birth, and had great difficulty giving birth.
17And it came to be, as she was having great difficulty giving birth, that the midwife said to her, “Do not fear, for it is another son for you.”
18And it came to be, as her life was going out – for she died – that she called his name Ben-Oni. But his father called him Binyamin.
19So Raḥĕl died and was buried on the way to Ephrath, that is Bĕyth Leḥem.
20And Ya‛aqoḇ set a standing column on her burial-place, which is the monument of Raḥĕl’s burial-place to this day.
21And Yisra’ĕl set out and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Ěḏer.
22And it came to be, when Yisra’ĕl dwelt in that land, that Re’uḇĕn went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine. And Yisra’ĕl heard about it. Now the sons of Ya‛aqoḇ were twelve:
23the sons of Lĕ’ah were Re’uḇĕn, Ya‛aqoḇ’s first-born, and Shim‛on, and Lĕwi, and Yehuḏah, and Yissasḵar, and Zeḇulun;
24the sons of Raḥĕl were Yosĕph and Binyamin;
25the sons of Bilhah, Raḥĕl’s female servant, were Dan and Naphtali;
26and the sons of Zilpah, Lĕ’ah’s female servant, were Gaḏ and Ashĕr. These were the sons of Ya‛aqoḇ who were born to him in Paddan Aram.
27And Ya‛aqoḇ came to his father Yitsḥaq at Mamrĕ, or Qiryath Arba, that is Ḥeḇron, where Aḇraham and Yitsḥaq had dwelt.
28And the days of Yitsḥaq were one hundred and eighty years.
29So Yitsḥaq breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people, aged and satisfied of days. And his sons Ěsaw and Ya‛aqoḇ buried him.
35
The Return to Bethel
1 Then God said to Jacob, “Go up at once#tn Heb “arise, go up.” The first imperative gives the command a sense of urgency. to Bethel#map For location see Map4-G4; Map5-C1; Map6-E3; Map7-D1; Map8-G3. and live there. Make an altar there to God, who appeared to you when you fled from your brother Esau.”#sn God is calling on Jacob to fulfill his vow he made when he fled from…Esau (see Gen 28:20-22). 2 So Jacob told his household and all who were with him, “Get rid of the foreign gods you have among you.#tn Heb “which are in your midst.” Purify yourselves and change your clothes.#sn The actions of removing false gods, becoming ritually clean, and changing garments would become necessary steps in Israel when approaching the Lord in worship. 3 Let us go up at once#tn Heb “let us arise and let us go up.” The first cohortative gives the statement a sense of urgency. to Bethel. Then I will make#tn The cohortative with the prefixed conjunction here indicates purpose or consequence. an altar there to God, who responded to me in my time of distress#tn Heb “day of distress.” See Ps 20:1 which utilizes similar language. and has been with me wherever I went.”#tn Heb “in the way in which I went.” Jacob alludes here to God’s promise to be with him (see Gen 28:20).
4 So they gave Jacob all the foreign gods that were in their possession#tn Heb “in their hand.” and the rings that were in their ears.#sn On the basis of a comparison with Gen 34 and Num 31, G. J. Wenham argues that the foreign gods and the rings could have been part of the plunder that came from the destruction of Shechem (Genesis [WBC], 2:324). Jacob buried them#sn Jacob buried them. On the burial of the gods, see E. Nielson, “The Burial of the Foreign Gods,” ST 8 (1954/55): 102-22. under the oak#tn Or “terebinth.” near Shechem 5 and they started on their journey.#tn Heb “and they journeyed.” The surrounding cities were afraid of God,#tn Heb “and the fear of God was upon the cities which were round about them.” The expression “fear of God” apparently refers (1) to a fear of God (objective genitive; God is the object of their fear). (2) But it could mean “fear from God,” that is, fear which God placed in them (cf. NRSV “a terror from God”). Another option (3) is that the divine name is used as a superlative here, referring to “tremendous fear” (cf. NEB “were panic-stricken”; NASB “a great terror”). and they did not pursue the sons of Jacob.
6 Jacob and all those who were with him arrived at Luz (that is, Bethel)#map For location see Map4-G4; Map5-C1; Map6-E3; Map7-D1; Map8-G3. in the land of Canaan.#tn Heb “and Jacob came to Luz which is in the land of Canaan – it is Bethel – he and all the people who were with him.” 7 He built an altar there and named the place El Bethel#sn The name El-Bethel means “God of Bethel.” because there God had revealed himself#tn Heb “revealed themselves.” The verb נִגְלוּ (niglu), translated “revealed himself,” is plural, even though one expects the singular form with the plural of majesty. Perhaps אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is here a numerical plural, referring both to God and the angelic beings that appeared to Jacob. See the note on the word “know” in Gen 3:5. to him when he was fleeing from his brother. 8 (Deborah,#sn Deborah. This woman had been Rebekah’s nurse, but later attached herself to Jacob. She must have been about one hundred and eighty years old when she died. Rebekah’s nurse, died and was buried under the oak below Bethel; thus it was named#tn “and he called its name.” There is no expressed subject, so the verb can be translated as passive. Oak of Weeping.)#tn Or “Allon Bacuth,” if one transliterates the Hebrew name (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). An oak tree was revered in the ancient world and often designated as a shrine or landmark. This one was named for the weeping (mourning) occasioned by the death of Deborah.
9 God appeared to Jacob again after he returned from Paddan Aram and blessed him. 10 God said to him, “Your name is Jacob, but your name will no longer be called Jacob; Israel will be your name.” So God named him Israel.#tn Heb “and he called his name Israel.” The referent of the pronoun “he” (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn The name Israel means “God fights” (although some interpret the meaning as “he fights [with] God”). See Gen 32:28. 11 Then God said to him, “I am the sovereign God.#tn The name אֵל שַׁדַּי (’el shadday, “El Shaddai”) has often been translated “God Almighty,” primarily because Jerome translated it omnipotens (“all powerful”) in the Latin Vulgate. There has been much debate over the meaning of the name. For discussion see W. F. Albright, “The Names Shaddai and Abram,” JBL 54 (1935): 173-210; R. Gordis, “The Biblical Root sdy-sd,” JTS 41 (1940): 34-43; and especially T. N. D. Mettinger, In Search of God, 69-72. Shaddai/El Shaddai is the sovereign king of the world who grants, blesses, and judges. In the Book of Genesis he blesses the patriarchs with fertility and promises numerous descendants. Outside Genesis he both blesses/protects and takes away life/happiness. The patriarchs knew God primarily as El Shaddai (Exod 6:3). While the origin and meaning of this name are uncertain its significance is clear. The name is used in contexts where God appears as the source of fertility and life. For a fuller discussion see the note on “sovereign God” in Gen 17:1. Be fruitful and multiply! A nation – even a company of nations – will descend from you; kings will be among your descendants!#tn Heb “A nation and a company of nations will be from you and kings from your loins will come out.”sn A nation…will descend from you. The promise is rooted in the Abrahamic promise (see Gen 17). God confirms what Isaac told Jacob (see Gen 28:3-4). Here, though, for the first time Jacob is promised kings as descendants. 12 The land I gave#tn The Hebrew verb translated “gave” refers to the Abrahamic promise of the land. However, the actual possession of that land lay in the future. The decree of the Lord made it certain; but it has the sense “promised to give.” to Abraham and Isaac I will give to you. To your descendants#tn Heb “and to your offspring after you.” I will also give this land.” 13 Then God went up from the place#tn Heb “went up from upon him in the place.” where he spoke with him. 14 So Jacob set up a sacred stone pillar in the place where God spoke with him.#tn Heb “and Jacob set up a sacred pillar in the place where he spoke with him, a sacred pillar of stone” (see the notes on the term “sacred stone” in Gen 28:18). This passage stands parallel to Gen 28:18-19, where Jacob set up a sacred stone, poured oil on it, and called the place Bethel. Some commentators see these as two traditions referring to the same event, but it is more likely that Jacob reconsecrated the place in fulfillment of the vow he had made here earlier. In support of this is the fact that the present narrative alludes to and is built on the previous one. He poured out a drink offering on it, and then he poured oil on it.#tn The verb נָסַךְ (nasakh) means “to pour out, to make libations,” and the noun נֶסֶךְ (nesekh) is a “drink-offering,” usually of wine or of blood. The verb יָצַק (yatsaq) means “to pour out,” often of anointing oil, but of other elements as well. 15 Jacob named the place#sn Called the name of the place. In view of the previous naming of Bethel in Gen 28:19, here Jacob was confirming or affirming the name through an official ritual marking the fulfillment of the vow. This place now did become Bethel, the house of God. where God spoke with him Bethel.#tn The name Bethel means “house of God” in Hebrew.map For location see Map4-G4; Map5-C1; Map6-E3; Map7-D1; Map8-G3.
16 They traveled on from Bethel, and when Ephrath was still some distance away,#tn Heb “and there was still a stretch of the land to go to Ephrath.” Rachel went into labor#tn Normally the verb would be translated “she gave birth,” but because that obviously had not happened yet, it is better to translate the verb as ingressive, “began to give birth” (cf. NIV) or “went into labor.” – and her labor was hard. 17 When her labor was at its hardest,#tn The construction uses a Hiphil infinitive, which E. A. Speiser classifies as an elative Hiphil. The contrast is with the previous Piel: there “she had hard labor,” and here, “her labor was at its hardest.” Failure to see this, Speiser notes, has led to redundant translations and misunderstandings (Genesis [AB], 273). the midwife said to her, “Don’t be afraid, for you are having another son.”#sn Another son. The episode recalls and fulfills the prayer of Rachel at the birth of Joseph (Gen 30:24): “may he add” another son. 18 With her dying breath,#tn Heb “in the going out of her life, for she was dying.” Rachel named the child with her dying breath. she named him Ben-Oni.#sn The name Ben-Oni means “son of my suffering.” It is ironic that Rachel’s words to Jacob in Gen 30:1, “Give me children or I’ll die,” take a different turn here, for it was having the child that brought about her death. But his father called him Benjamin instead.#tn The disjunctive clause is contrastive.sn His father called him Benjamin. There was a preference for giving children good or positive names in the ancient world, and “son of my suffering” would not do (see the incident in 1 Chr 4:9-10), because it would be a reminder of the death of Rachel (in this connection, see also D. Daube, “The Night of Death,” HTR 61 [1968]: 629-32). So Jacob named him Benjamin, which means “son of the [or “my”] right hand.” The name Benjamin appears in the Mari texts. There have been attempts to connect this name to the resident tribe listed at Mari, “sons of the south” (since the term “right hand” can also mean “south” in Hebrew), but this assumes a different reading of the story. See J. Muilenburg, “The Birth of Benjamin,” JBL 75 (1956): 194-201. 19 So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).#sn This explanatory note links the earlier name Ephrath with the later name Bethlehem.map For location see Map5-B1; Map7-E2; Map8-E2; Map10-B4. 20 Jacob set up a marker#tn Heb “standing stone.” over her grave; it is#tn Or perhaps “it is known as” (cf. NEB). the Marker of Rachel’s Grave to this day.
21 Then Israel traveled on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder.#sn The location of Migdal Eder is not given. It appears to be somewhere between Bethlehem and Hebron. Various traditions have identified it as at the shepherds’ fields near Bethlehem (the Hebrew name Migdal Eder means “tower of the flock”; see Mic 4:8) or located it near Solomon’s pools. 22 While Israel was living in that land, Reuben had sexual relations with#tn Heb “and Reuben went and lay with.” The expression “lay with” is a euphemism for having sexual intercourse.sn Reuben’s act of having sexual relations with Bilhah probably had other purposes than merely satisfying his sexual desire. By having sex with Bilhah, Reuben (Leah’s oldest son) would have prevented Bilhah from succeeding Rachel as the favorite wife, and by sleeping with his father’s concubine he would also be attempting to take over leadership of the clan – something Absalom foolishly attempted later on in Israel’s history (2 Sam 16:21-22). Bilhah, his father’s concubine, and Israel heard about it.
Jacob had twelve sons:
23 The sons of Leah were Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, as well as Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.
24 The sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin.
25 The sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s servant, were Dan and Naphtali.
26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah’s servant, were Gad and Asher.
These were the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan Aram.
27 So Jacob came back to his father Isaac in Mamre,#tn This is an adverbial accusative of location. to Kiriath Arba#tn The name “Kiriath Arba” is in apposition to the preceding name, “Mamre.” (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac had stayed.#tn The Hebrew verb גּוּר (gur), traditionally rendered “to sojourn,” refers to temporary settlement without ownership rights. 28 Isaac lived to be 180 years old.#tn Heb “And the days of Isaac were one hundred and eighty years.” 29 Then Isaac breathed his last and joined his ancestors.#tn Heb “and Isaac expired and died and he was gathered to his people.” In the ancient Israelite view he joined his deceased ancestors in Sheol, the land of the dead. He died an old man who had lived a full life.#tn Heb “old and full of years.” His sons Esau and Jacob buried him.