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Matthew 5

5
Jesus Teaches the Disciples and Crowds
1When Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2and he began to teach them.
Blessings
He said,
3“Blessed are the poor in spirit,
because the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.
4Blessed are those who mourn,
because they will be comforted.
5Blessed are those who are humble,
because they will inherit the earth.
6Blessed are those who are hungry and thirsty for justice,
because they will be fully satisfied.
7Blessed are those who show mercy,
because they will be shown mercy.
8Blessed are those who have pure hearts,
because they will see God.
9Blessed are those who make peace,
because they will be called children of God.
10Blessed are those who suffer for the sake of justice,
because the kingdom of heaven is theirs.
11“Blessed are you when, because of me, people insult you and attack you and falsely accuse you of doing all kinds of bad things. 12Rejoice and be glad, because you have a great reward in heaven. You’re being treated just the way people treated the prophets who lived long ago.
Salt and Light
13“You’re the salt of the earth. But if salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It’s not good for anything anymore. It has to be thrown out onto the street.
14“You’re the light of the world. A city that’s built on top of a hill can’t be hidden. 15People don’t light a lamp and then put it under a bowl. Instead, they put it on a stand so that it gives light to everyone in the house. 16In the same way, let your light shine so that others can see it. Then they’ll see the good things you do and praise your Father who is in heaven.
Fulfilling the Law
17“Don’t think that I’ve come to set aside what’s written in the Law and the Prophets. I haven’t come to do that, but to fulfill what’s written. 18Truly I tell you, heaven and earth will disappear before the smallest letter disappears from the Law. Not even the smallest mark of a pen will disappear until everything the Law says happens. 19So anyone who sets aside one of the least of the commands and teaches others to do the same will be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But anyone who practices and teaches the commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20I tell you, unless your righteousness is even better than the righteousness of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you won’t enter the kingdom of heaven.
Murder
21“You’ve heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Don’t commit murder. Anyone who commits murder will answer for it in court.’ 22But I tell you that anyone who loses their temper with a brother or sister will answer for it in court. Anyone who speaks scornfully to a brother or sister will face the council of elders. And anyone who dismisses someone as worthless will be in danger of the fire in hell.
23“Suppose you’re offering your gift at the altar and you remember that your brother or sister has something against you. 24Leave your gift in front of the altar, go and make peace with them, and then come back and offer your gift.
25“Suppose someone has a claim against you and is taking you to court. Settle the matter quickly, while you’re still on the way there together. If you don’t, you may be handed over to the judge, the judge may hand you over to the officer, and you may be thrown into prison. 26Truly I tell you, then you won’t get out until you’ve paid the very last penny!
Adultery
27“You’ve heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ 28But I tell you that anyone who looks with lust at a woman has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29If your right eye causes you to sin, pull it out and throw it away. It’s better to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30If your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It’s better to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.
Divorce
31“It has been said, ‘Any man who divorces his wife must give her a letter of divorce.’ 32But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife for any reason other than unfaithfulness makes her a victim of adultery. And anyone who marries a divorced woman commits adultery.
Promises
33“Again, you’ve heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Don’t break your promises. Keep the promises you make to the Lord.’ 34But I tell you, don’t make any promises like that. Don’t make them in the name of heaven, because that’s God’s throne. 35Don’t make them in the name of the earth, because that’s where God rests his feet. Don’t make them in the name of Jerusalem, because that’s the city of the Great King. 36And don’t guarantee a promise with your own head, because you can’t turn even one hair of your head white or black. 37All you need to say is simply ‘yes’ or ‘no.’ Anything more than that comes from the evil one.
Not Taking Revenge
38“You’ve heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 39But I tell you not to retaliate against someone who treats you poorly. Suppose someone slaps you on your right cheek. Then turn your other cheek to them as well. 40Suppose someone takes you to court to get your shirt. Let them have your coat too. 41Suppose someone forces you to go one mile. Go two miles with them. 42If a person asks you for something, give it to them, and if a person wants to borrow something from you, let them borrow it.
Loving Your Enemies
43“You’ve heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor. Hate your enemy.’ 44But I tell you, love your enemies, and pray for those who hurt you. 45That way you’ll be the children of your Father who is in heaven. He causes his sun to shine on bad people and good people, and he sends rain on those who do right and those who don’t. 46If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Even the tax collectors do that. 47If you say hello only to your friends, what more are you doing than others? Even people who don’t believe in God do that. 48So be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
5
The Sermon on the Mount; The Beatitudes
1When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and when He was seated, His #A disciple was a “learner” who may have been curious or convinced or committed.disciples came to Him. 2Then He began to teach them, saying,
3 “Blessed [spiritually prosperous, happy, to be admired] are the poor in spirit [those devoid of spiritual arrogance, those who regard themselves as insignificant], for theirs is the kingdom of heaven [both now and forever].
4 “Blessed [forgiven, refreshed by God’s grace] are those who mourn [over their sins and repent], for they will be comforted [when the burden of sin is lifted].
5 “Blessed [inwardly peaceful, spiritually secure, worthy of respect] are the #Or humble, meek.gentle [the kind-hearted, the sweet-spirited, the self-controlled], for they will inherit the earth.
6 “Blessed [joyful, nourished by God’s goodness] are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness [those who actively seek right standing with God], for they will be [completely] satisfied.
7 “Blessed [content, sheltered by God’s promises] are the merciful, for they will receive mercy.
8 “Blessed [anticipating God’s presence, spiritually mature] are the pure in heart [those with integrity, moral courage, and godly character], for they will see God.
9 “Blessed [spiritually calm with life-joy in God’s favor] are the makers and maintainers of peace, for they will [express His character and] be called the sons of God.
10 “Blessed [comforted by inner peace and God’s love] are those who are persecuted for #Lit the sake of righteousness.doing that which is morally right, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven [both now and forever].
11 “Blessed [morally courageous and spiritually alive with life-joy in God’s goodness] are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil things against you because of [your association with] Me. 12Be glad and exceedingly joyful, for your reward in heaven is great [absolutely inexhaustible]; for in this same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
Disciples and the World
13 “You are the # In ancient times salt was often used as a preservative. Similarly, followers of Christ are to preserve both the gospel message and Christian values in the secular world. salt of the earth; but if the salt has # The salt from the Dead Sea contains impurities that affect its qualities as a seasoning and as a preservative. lost its taste (purpose), how can it be made salty? It is no longer good for anything, but to be thrown out and walked on by people [when the walkways are wet and slippery].
14 “You are the light of [Christ to] the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden; 15nor does anyone light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a lampstand, and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good deeds and moral excellence, and [recognize and honor and] glorify your Father who is in heaven.
17 “Do not think that I came to do away with or undo the # I.e. the Pentateuch. Law [of Moses] or the [writings of the] Prophets; I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. 18For I assure you and most solemnly say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke [of the pen] will pass from the Law until all things [which it foreshadows] are accomplished. 19So whoever breaks one of the least [important] of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, will be called least [important] in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever practices and teaches them, he will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
20 “For I say to you that unless your righteousness (uprightness, moral essence) is more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.
Personal Relationships
21 “You have heard that it was said to the men of old, ‘You shall not murder,’ and ‘Whoever murders shall be # Or liable to. guilty before the court.’ 22But I say to you that everyone who continues to be angry with his brother or harbors malice against him shall be guilty before the court; and whoever speaks [contemptuously and insultingly] to his brother, #A severe Aramaic insult.‘Raca (You empty-headed idiot)!’ shall be guilty before the supreme court (Sanhedrin); and whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of the #Gr Gehenna, a Greek version of the Hebrew for Valley of Hinnom, a ravine where garbage was burned continuously, located just south of Jerusalem. Often regarded in ancient times as symbolic of hell (the lake of fire), a realm reserved for the wicked. Mentioned in Matt 5:22, 29, 30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Luke 12:5; James 3:6.#Lit Gehenna of fire.fiery hell. 23So if you are presenting your offering at the altar, and while there you remember that your brother has something [such as a grievance or legitimate complaint] against you, 24leave your offering there at the altar and go. First make peace with your brother, and then come and present your offering. 25Come to terms quickly [at the earliest opportunity] with your opponent at law while you are with him on the way [to court], so that your opponent does not hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you are thrown into prison. 26I assure you and most solemnly say to you, you will not come out of there until you have paid the last #Gr kodrantes, from the Lat quadrans, which was the smallest Roman bronze coin.cent.
27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery’; 28but I say to you that everyone who [so much as] looks at a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29If your right eye makes you stumble and leads you to sin, tear it out and throw it away [that is, remove yourself from the source of temptation]; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30If your right hand makes you stumble and leads you to sin, cut it off and throw it away [that is, remove yourself from the source of temptation]; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body than for your whole body to go into hell.
31 “It has also been said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife is to give her a certificate of divorce’; 32but I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except on grounds of sexual immorality, causes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a woman who has been divorced commits adultery.
33 “Again, you have heard that it was said to the men of old, ‘You shall not make false vows, but you shall fulfill your vows to the Lord [as a religious duty].’ 34But I say to you, do not make an oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 35or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. 36Nor shall you make an oath by your head, for you are not able to make a single hair white or black. 37But let your statement be, ‘Yes, yes’ or ‘No, no’ [a firm yes or no]; anything more than that comes from the evil one.
38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth [punishment that fits the offense].’ 39But I say to you, do not resist an evil person [who insults you or violates your rights]; but whoever #In this context the “slap” is not an act of violence, but more likely an insult or violation of one’s rights.slaps you on the right cheek, turn the other toward him also [simply ignore insignificant insults or trivial losses and do not bother to retaliate—maintain your dignity, your self-respect, your poise]. 40If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, #Probably a prohibition against frivolous legal action.let him have your coat also [for the Lord repays the offender]. 41And whoever #Roman soldiers were allowed to force civilian bystanders to carry their gear one mile for them.forces you to go one mile, go with him two. 42Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.
43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor (fellow man) and hate your enemy.’ 44But I say to you, #The key to understanding this and other statements about love is to know that this love (the Greek word agape) is not so much a matter of emotion as it is of doing things for the benefit of another person, that is, having an unselfish concern for another and a willingness to seek the best for another.love [that is, unselfishly seek the best or higher good for] your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45so that you may [show yourselves to] be the children of your Father who is in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on those who are evil and on those who are good, and makes the rain fall on the righteous [those who are morally upright] and the unrighteous [the unrepentant, those who oppose Him]. 46For if you love [only] those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do that? 47And if you greet only your brothers [wishing them God’s blessing and peace], what more [than others] are you doing? Do not even the Gentiles [who do not know the Lord] do that? 48You, therefore, will be perfect [growing into spiritual maturity both in mind and character, actively integrating godly values into your daily life], as your heavenly Father is perfect.