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Genesis 36

36
1The following is the genealogy of Esau (also known as Edom). 2Esau married two Canaanite women: Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, and granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite. 3In addition he married Basemath, daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4Adah had a son for Esau named Eliphaz. Basemath had Reul. 5Oholibamah had Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau, who were born to him in Canaan.
6Esau took his wives, sons and daughters, and everyone in his household, together with his livestock, all his other animals, and all the possessions he had gained while in Canaan, and went to live in a country far away from his brother Jacob. 7He did this because the land they were living in couldn't support both of them with all their livestock. 8Esau settled down in the hill country of Seir.
9The following is the genealogy of Esau, father of the Edomites, who lived in the hill country of Seir:
10These were the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, son of Esau's wife Adah, and Reuel, son of Esau's wife Basemath. 11The sons of Eliphaz were: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. 12Timna, the concubine of Esau's son Eliphaz, had Amalek for Eliphaz. These were the descendants of Esau's wife Adah.
13These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. They were the descendants of Esau's wife Basemath.
14These were the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah and granddaughter of Zibeon, whom she had for Esau: Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
15These were the tribal leaders of Esau's sons. The tribal leaders of the sons of Eliphaz (Esau's firstborn) were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, 16Korah,#36:16. “Korah”: as listed here is often considered to be a copyist's mistake since he is listed as a son of Esau in verse 14. Gatam, and Amalek. They were the tribal leaders of Eliphaz in the country of Edom, and they were the descendants of Adah.
17These were the sons of Esau's son Reuel: tribal leaders Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. They were the tribal leaders descended from Reuel in the country of Edom, and they were the descendants of Esau's wife Basemath.
18These were the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah: tribal leaders Jeush, Jalam, and Korah; they were the tribal leaders descended from Esau's wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah. 19All these were the sons of Esau (also called Edom), and they were their tribal leaders.
20These were the sons of Seir the Horite, who were living in the country: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; they were the tribal leaders of the Horites, the descendants of Seir in the land of Edom.
22The sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam. Timna was Lotan's sister.
23These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
24These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. (This was the Anah who discovered the hot springs#36:24. “Hot springs”: the meaning of this Hebrew word is uncertain. in the desert while he was looking after the donkeys of his father Zibeon.)
25These were the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, daughter of Anah.
26These were the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
27These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29These were the tribal leaders of the Horites: tribal leaders Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 30Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. They were the tribal leaders of the Horites listed according to their tribes in the country of Seir.
31These were the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before there was any king who ruled over the Israelites:
32Bela, son of Beor, ruled in Edom and the name of his town was Dinhabah.
33When Bela died, Jobab, son of Zerah from Bozrah, took over as king.
34When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites took over as king.
35When Husham died, Hadad, son of Bedad, took over as king. He was the one who defeated the Midianites in the country of Moab, and the name of his town was Avith.
36When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah took over as king.
37When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the Euphrates took over as king.
38When Shaul died, Baal-hanan, son of Achbor, took over as king.
39When Baal-hanan, son of Achbor, died, Hadad took over as king. The name of his town was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, daughter of Me-zahab.
40These were the names of the tribal leaders descended from Esau, according to their families and where they lived, listed by name: tribal leaders Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 41Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 42Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 43Magdiel, and Iram. These were the tribal leaders of Edom, listed according to the places where they lived in the country. Esau was the ancestor of the Edomites.
36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.