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Genesis 10

10
1The following are the genealogies#10:1. These genealogies are repeated in 1 Chronicles 1:5-27. of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They had sons born to them after the flood.
2The sons#10:2. Note that “sons” throughout this chapter can also mean “descendants.” of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
4The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.#10:4. “Dodanim”: the Septuagint takes the spelling to be Rodanim, as does the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 1:7. Note that the last two names at least are probably those of a group of people rather than a personal name. 5The descendants of these ancestors spread throughout the coastal areas, each group having their own language, with their families developing into different nations.
6The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
7The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca.
The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush was also the father of Nimrod, who set himself up as the first tyrant on earth. 9He was a powerful fighter who defied#10:9. “Defied”: The Septuagint reads “against” or “versus.” the Lord; which is why there's the expression, “Like Nimrod, a powerful fighter who defied the Lord.” 10His kingdom began in the cities of Babel,#10:10. “Babel” or “Babylon.” Nimrod is the first person in Scripture described as having a kingdom, normally associated with an imposed rule using force. Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, all located in the land of Shinar.#10:10. “Shinar”: or “Babylonia.” 11From there he moved into Assyria#10:11. “Assyria”: in Micah 5:6 Assyria is called “the land of Nimrod.” and built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12and Resen, which lies between Nineveh and the great city of Calah.
13Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, the Anamites, the Lehabites, the Naphtuhites, 14the Pathrusites, the Casluhites, and the Caphtorites (ancestors of the Philistines).#10:14. See Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7.
15Canaan was the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of the Hittites,#10:15. “The Hittites”: literally “Heth.” 16the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.
Later the Canaanite tribes spread out 19and the territory of the Canaanites stretched from Sidon towards Gerar and all the way to Gaza, then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, all the way to Lasha. 20These were the sons of Ham according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nation.
21Shem, whose older brother#10:21. See note on 5:32. was Japheth, also had sons. Shem was the forefather of all the sons of Eber.
22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
23The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.#10:23. “Mash”: The Septuagint and 1 Chronicles 1:17 read “Meshech.”
24Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber.
25Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg,#10:25. The word means “divided.” because in his time the earth was divided; the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. These were all sons of Joktan. 30They lived in the land lying between Mesha to Sephar, in the hill country to the east.
31These were the sons of Shem, according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nations.
32These were all the tribes descended from Noah's sons, according to their genealogies and national groups. From these ancestors the different nations of the earth spread around the world after the flood.
10
The Descendants of the Sons of Noah
1These are the generations#Or “family records” of the sons of Noah—Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Children#Or “sons” were born to them after the flood. 2The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4And the sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5From these the coastland peoples spread out through their lands, each according to his own language by their own families, in their nations.
6And the sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7And the sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 8And Cush fathered Nimrod. He was the first on earth to be a mighty warrior.#Literally “He began to be a mighty warrior on the earth” 9He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh. Therefore it was said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before Yahweh.” 10Now,#Or “And” the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11From that land he went out to Assyria, and he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city. 13And Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14Pathrusim, and Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim.
15Canaan fathered Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth, 16and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the families of the Canaanites were spread abroad. 19And the territory of the Canaanites was from Sidon in the direction of#Literally “in your going” Gerar as far as Gaza, and in the direction of#Literally “in your going” Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20These are the descendants#Or “sons” (“descendants” was chosen since the proper names in this section are gentilic in form—that is, they indicate one’s place of origin—and have the definite article) of Ham, according to their families and their languages, in their lands, and in their nations.
21And to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the older brother of Japheth, children were also born. 22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. 23And the sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24And Arphaxad fathered Shelah, and Shelah fathered Eber. 25And to Eber two sons were born. The name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and the name of his brother was Joktan. 26And Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan. 30And their dwelling place extended from#Literally “was from” Mesha in the direction of#Literally “in your going” Sephar to the hill country of the east. 31These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their languages, in their lands, and according to their nations.
32These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their generations#Or “family records” and in their nations. And from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.