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Genesis 10

10
The Table of Nations
1These are the family records#Gn 2:4 of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They also had sons after the flood.
2Japheth’s sons:#1Ch 1:5–7; Ezk 38:1–6 Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3Gomer’s sons: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4And Javan’s sons: Elishah, Tarshish,#1Kg 10:22; Is 2:16 Kittim, and Dodanim.#10:4 Some Hb mss, LXX read Rodanim; 1Ch 1:7 5From these descendants, the peoples of the coasts and islands spread out into their lands according to their clans in their nations, each with its own language.
6Ham’s sons:#1Ch 1:8–10 Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 7Cush’s sons: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. And Raamah’s sons: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush fathered Nimrod, who began to be powerful in the land. 9He was a powerful hunter in the sight of the Lord. That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a powerful hunter in the sight of the Lord.” 10His kingdom started with Babylon,#Gn 11:9 Erech,#10:10 Or Uruk Accad,#10:10 Or Akkad and Calneh,#10:10 Or and all of them in the land of Shinar.#10:10 Or in Babylonia#Gn 11:2; 14:1 11From that land he went to Assyria#Mc 5:6 and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, Calah, 12and Resen, between Nineveh and the great city Calah.
13Mizraim#10:13 = Egypt#1Ch 1:11–16 fathered the people of Lud, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, 14Pathrus, Casluh (the Philistines came from them), and Caphtor.#Jr 47:4; Am 9:7
15Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16as well as the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,#Gn 15:19–21 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the Canaanite clans scattered. 19The Canaanite border went from Sidon going toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and going toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim as far as Lasha.
20These are Ham’s sons by their clans, according to their languages, in their lands and their nations.
21And Shem, Japheth’s older brother, also had sons. Shem was the father of all the sons of Eber.#Gn 11:13–14 22Shem’s sons#1Ch 1:17–23 were Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.
23Aram’s sons: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.
24Arpachshad fathered#10:24 LXX reads fathered Cainan, and Cainan fathered; Gn 11:12–13; Lk 3:35–36 Shelah,#Gn 11:12; Lk 3:35 and Shelah fathered Eber. 25Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg,#10:25 = Division for during his days the earth was divided;#Gn 11:8; Ps 55:9 his brother was named Joktan. 26And Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were Joktan’s sons. 30Their settlements extended from Mesha to Sephar, the eastern hill country.
31These are Shem’s sons by their clans, according to their languages, in their lands and their nations.
32These are the clans of Noah’s sons, according to their family records, in their nations. The nations on earth spread out from these after the flood.#Gn 9:19
10
1The following are the genealogies#10:1. These genealogies are repeated in 1 Chronicles 1:5-27. of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They had sons born to them after the flood.
2The sons#10:2. Note that “sons” throughout this chapter can also mean “descendants.” of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
4The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.#10:4. “Dodanim”: the Septuagint takes the spelling to be Rodanim, as does the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 1:7. Note that the last two names at least are probably those of a group of people rather than a personal name. 5The descendants of these ancestors spread throughout the coastal areas, each group having their own language, with their families developing into different nations.
6The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
7The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca.
The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush was also the father of Nimrod, who set himself up as the first tyrant on earth. 9He was a powerful fighter who defied#10:9. “Defied”: The Septuagint reads “against” or “versus.” the Lord; which is why there's the expression, “Like Nimrod, a powerful fighter who defied the Lord.” 10His kingdom began in the cities of Babel,#10:10. “Babel” or “Babylon.” Nimrod is the first person in Scripture described as having a kingdom, normally associated with an imposed rule using force. Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, all located in the land of Shinar.#10:10. “Shinar”: or “Babylonia.” 11From there he moved into Assyria#10:11. “Assyria”: in Micah 5:6 Assyria is called “the land of Nimrod.” and built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12and Resen, which lies between Nineveh and the great city of Calah.
13Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, the Anamites, the Lehabites, the Naphtuhites, 14the Pathrusites, the Casluhites, and the Caphtorites (ancestors of the Philistines).#10:14. See Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7.
15Canaan was the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of the Hittites,#10:15. “The Hittites”: literally “Heth.” 16the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.
Later the Canaanite tribes spread out 19and the territory of the Canaanites stretched from Sidon towards Gerar and all the way to Gaza, then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, all the way to Lasha. 20These were the sons of Ham according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nation.
21Shem, whose older brother#10:21. See note on 5:32. was Japheth, also had sons. Shem was the forefather of all the sons of Eber.
22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
23The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.#10:23. “Mash”: The Septuagint and 1 Chronicles 1:17 read “Meshech.”
24Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber.
25Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg,#10:25. The word means “divided.” because in his time the earth was divided; the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. These were all sons of Joktan. 30They lived in the land lying between Mesha to Sephar, in the hill country to the east.
31These were the sons of Shem, according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nations.
32These were all the tribes descended from Noah's sons, according to their genealogies and national groups. From these ancestors the different nations of the earth spread around the world after the flood.