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Genesis 14

14
War of the Kings
1In the days of the [Eastern] kings Amraphel of Shinar, Arioch of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer of Elam, and Tidal of Goiim, 2they [invaded the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea, and] made war with Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela #One of the many facts supporting the antiquity of Genesis is that many of the original names of places mentioned were so old that Moses had to add an explanation in order to identify these ancient names, so that the Israelites returning from Egypt could recognize them. Chapter 14 alone contains six such explanatory notes (Gen 14:2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 17).(that is, Zoar). 3All of these [kings] joined together [as allies] in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Sea of Salt). 4Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer [the most powerful king in the invading confederacy], but in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the [three] kings who were with him attacked and subdued the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, 6and the Horites in their mountainous country of Seir, as far as El-paran, which is on the border of the wilderness. 7Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and subdued all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who lived in Hazazon-tamar. 8Then the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela (that is, Zoar) came out; and they joined together for battle with the invading kings in the Valley of Siddim, 9against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar—four kings against five. 10Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar (bitumen) pits; and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into them. But the remainder [of the kings] who survived fled to the hill country. 11Then the victors took all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food supply and provisions and left. 12And they also took [captive] Lot, Abram’s nephew, and his possessions and left, for he was living in Sodom.
13Then a survivor who had escaped [from the invading forces on the other side of the Jordan] came and told Abram the #This ethnic designation means “descended from Eber” or, more probably, “one who crosses (a border).”Hebrew. Now he was living by the terebinths (oaks) of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol and brother of Aner—they were allies of Abram. 14When Abram heard that his nephew [Lot] had been captured, he armed and led out his trained men, born in his own house, [numbering] three hundred and eighteen, and went in pursuit as far [north] as Dan. 15He divided his forces against them by night, he and his servants, and attacked and defeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus. 16And he brought back all the goods, and also brought back his nephew Lot and his possessions, and also the women, and the people.
Abram and Melchizedek
17Then after Abram’s return from the defeat (slaughter) of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley). 18#Heb king of righteousness.Melchizedek king of Salem (ancient Jerusalem) brought out bread and wine [for them]; he was the priest of #Heb El Elyon and so throughout the chapter. The supreme Ruler of all the universe; His dominion is all encompassing and everlasting.God Most High. 19And Melchizedek blessed Abram and said,
“Blessed (joyful, favored) be Abram by God Most High,
Creator and Possessor of heaven and earth;
20And blessed, praised, and glorified be God Most High,
Who has given your enemies into your hand.”
And Abram gave him a tenth of all [the treasure he had taken in battle]. 21The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and keep the goods (spoils of battle) for yourself.” 22But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have raised my hand and sworn an oath to the Lord God Most High, the Creator and Possessor of heaven and earth, 23that I would not take anything that is yours, from a thread to a sandal strap, so you could not say, ‘I [the King of Sodom] have made Abram rich.’ 24I will take nothing except what my young men have eaten, and the share of the spoils belonging to the men [my allies] who went with me—Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their share of the spoils.”

Genesis 14

14
Abram Rescues Lot
1In those days Amraphel king of Shinar, # Gn 10:10; 11:2 Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, # A region in southwest Iran # Gn 10:22; Is 11:11; Dn 8:2 and Tidal # The name Tidal may be related to the Hittite royal name Tudhaliya. king of Goiim # Or nations 2waged war against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, # Hs 11:8 as well as the king of Bela (that is, Zoar # Gn 19:22-23). 3All of these came as allies to the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Dead Sea # Nm 34:12; Dt 3:17; Jos 3:16). 4They were subject to Chedorlaomer for 12 years, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim # Gn 15:20; Dt 2:11,20-21; 3:11,13; Jos 12:4 in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, # Dt 1:4; Jos 9:10 the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, 6and the Horites # Gn 36:20; Dt 2:12,22 in the mountains of Seir, as far as El-paran # Gn 21:21; Nm 10:12 by the wilderness. 7Then they came back to invade En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh # Nm 13:26), and they defeated all the territory of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who lived in Hazazon-tamar. # 2Ch 20:2
8Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and lined up for battle in the Valley of Siddim 9against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of Goiim, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar — four kings against five. 10Now the Valley of Siddim contained many asphalt pits, and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, some fell into them, # Sam, LXX; MT reads fell there but the rest fled to the mountains. # Gn 19:17 11The four kings took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food and went on. 12They also took Abram’s nephew Lot and his possessions, for he was living in Sodom, # Gn 13:12 and they went on.
13One of the survivors came and told Abram the Hebrew, # Gn 39:14; 40:15 who lived near the oaks belonging to Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol and the brother of Aner. They were bound by a treaty with # Lit were possessors of a covenant of Abram. 14When Abram heard that his relative had been taken prisoner, he assembled # Sam; MT reads poured out his 318 trained men, born in his household, # Gn 12:5; 15:3; 17:27; Ec 2:7 and they went in pursuit as far as Dan. # Dt 34:1; Jdg 18:29; 1Kg 15:20 15And he and his servants deployed against them by night, attacked them, and pursued them as far as Hobah to the north of Damascus. 16He brought back all the goods and also his relative Lot and his goods, as well as the women and the other people.
Melchizedek’s Blessing
17After Abram returned from defeating Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him in the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley # 2Sm 18:18). 18Then Melchizedek, king of Salem, # = Jerusalem # Ps 110:4; Heb 5:6; 7:1 brought out bread and wine; he was a priest to God Most High. # Ps 57:2 19He blessed him and said:
Abram is blessed by God Most High,
Creator # Or Possessor of heaven and earth,
20and I give praise to # Or and blessed be God Most High
who has handed over your enemies to you.
And Abram gave him a tenth of everything. # Heb 7:4
21Then the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people, but take the possessions for yourself.”
22But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have raised my hand in an oath to Yahweh, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, 23that I will not take a thread or sandal strap or anything that belongs to you, so you can never say, ‘I made Abram rich.’ 24I will take nothing # Lit Nothing to me except what the servants have eaten. But as for the share of the men who came with me — Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre — they can take their share.”