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Genesis 10

10
Descendants of Noah
1These are the records of the generations (descendants) of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and the sons born to them after the flood:
2the sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras; 3the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah; 4the sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5From these, [the people of] the coastlands of the nations were separated and spread into their lands, every one #Here and in vv 20 and 31, references are made to the different languages, in anticipation of God’s judgment of Babel (11:7-9), which resulted in a proliferation of languages.according to his own language, according to their constituent groups (families), and into their nations:
6the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim [from whom descended the Egyptians], Put, and Canaan; 7the sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah; Sheba and Dedan. 8Cush became the father of Nimrod; he became a mighty one on the earth. 9He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10The beginning of his kingdom was #Or Babylon.Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [in Babylonia]. 11From that land Nimrod went to Assyria, and built Nineveh, and Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, 12and [Nimrod built] Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah; all these [combined to form] the great city [Nineveh]. 13Mizraim [the ancestor of the Egyptians] became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim 14and Pathrusim and Casluhim—from whom came the Philistines—and Caphtorim.
15Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth 16and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite 17and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite 18and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite. Afterward the families of the Canaanite were spread abroad. 19The territory of the Canaanite extended from Sidon as one goes to Gerar, as far as Gaza; and as one goes to #The fact that Genesis mentions the four cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim as still standing testifies to the antiquity of this account. These cities of the plain were completely destroyed in Abraham’s time (Gen 19:27-29; Deut 29:23).Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20These are the descendants of Ham according to their constituent groups, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.
21Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber [including the Hebrews], the #Or the brother of Japheth the elder.older brother of Japheth, children were born. 22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram; 23the sons of Aram [ancestor of the Syrians]: Uz, Hul, Gether and #Also known as Meshech (1 Chr 1:17).Mash. 24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah; and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25Two sons were born to Eber; the name of one was Peleg (division), for [the inhabitants of] the earth were divided in his days; and his brother’s name was Joktan. 26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27and Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28and #Also known as Ebal (1 Chr 1:22).Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29and Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30Now their territory extended from Mesha as one goes toward Sephar, to the hill country of the east. 31These are Shem’s descendants according to their constituent groups (families), according to their languages, by their lands, according to their nations.
32These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their descendants, by their nations; and from these [people] the nations were separated and spread abroad on the earth after the flood.
10
1The following are the genealogies#10:1. These genealogies are repeated in 1 Chronicles 1:5-27. of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They had sons born to them after the flood.
2The sons#10:2. Note that “sons” throughout this chapter can also mean “descendants.” of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
4The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.#10:4. “Dodanim”: the Septuagint takes the spelling to be Rodanim, as does the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 1:7. Note that the last two names at least are probably those of a group of people rather than a personal name. 5The descendants of these ancestors spread throughout the coastal areas, each group having their own language, with their families developing into different nations.
6The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
7The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca.
The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
8Cush was also the father of Nimrod, who set himself up as the first tyrant on earth. 9He was a powerful fighter who defied#10:9. “Defied”: The Septuagint reads “against” or “versus.” the Lord; which is why there's the expression, “Like Nimrod, a powerful fighter who defied the Lord.” 10His kingdom began in the cities of Babel,#10:10. “Babel” or “Babylon.” Nimrod is the first person in Scripture described as having a kingdom, normally associated with an imposed rule using force. Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, all located in the land of Shinar.#10:10. “Shinar”: or “Babylonia.” 11From there he moved into Assyria#10:11. “Assyria”: in Micah 5:6 Assyria is called “the land of Nimrod.” and built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12and Resen, which lies between Nineveh and the great city of Calah.
13Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, the Anamites, the Lehabites, the Naphtuhites, 14the Pathrusites, the Casluhites, and the Caphtorites (ancestors of the Philistines).#10:14. See Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7.
15Canaan was the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of the Hittites,#10:15. “The Hittites”: literally “Heth.” 16the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.
Later the Canaanite tribes spread out 19and the territory of the Canaanites stretched from Sidon towards Gerar and all the way to Gaza, then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, all the way to Lasha. 20These were the sons of Ham according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nation.
21Shem, whose older brother#10:21. See note on 5:32. was Japheth, also had sons. Shem was the forefather of all the sons of Eber.
22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
23The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.#10:23. “Mash”: The Septuagint and 1 Chronicles 1:17 read “Meshech.”
24Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber.
25Eber had two sons. One was named Peleg,#10:25. The word means “divided.” because in his time the earth was divided; the name of his brother was Joktan.
26Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. These were all sons of Joktan. 30They lived in the land lying between Mesha to Sephar, in the hill country to the east.
31These were the sons of Shem, according to their tribes, languages, lands, and nations.
32These were all the tribes descended from Noah's sons, according to their genealogies and national groups. From these ancestors the different nations of the earth spread around the world after the flood.