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Bereshis 40

40
1And it came to pass after these things, that the mashkeh (cupbearer) Melech Mitzrayim and his ofeh (baker) had offended adoneihem Melech Mitzrayim. 2And Pharaoh was in wrath against two of his sarisim, against the sar hamashkim, and against the sar ha'ofim. 3And he put them b'mishmar (under watch, in custody) in the bais sar hatabachim (house of the captain of the bodyguards), in the bais hasohar, in the makom (place) where Yosef was incarcerated. 4And the sar hatabachim charged Yosef with them, and he ministered to them; and they continued a season b'mishmar (in custody, under watch). 5And they dreamed a chalom both of them, each man his chalom in lailah echad (in one night, the same night), and each chalom with its own pitron (meaning, interpretation), the mashkeh and the ofeh of Melech Mitzrayim, which were prisoners in the bais hasohar. 6And Yosef came in unto them in the boker, and looked upon them, and, hinei, they were zo'afim (troubled ones, sad ones). 7And he asked the sarisim of Pharaoh that were with him b'mishmar (in the custody ward) of bais adonav, saying, Why look ye so ra'im (bad, downcast ones) hayom (today)? 8And they said unto him, We have dreamed a chalom, and there is no poter (interpreter) of it. And Yosef said unto them, Do not pitronim (interpretations) belong to Elohim? Tell now to me. 9And the sar hamashkim told his chalom to Yosef, and said to him, In my chalom, hinei, a gefen was before me; 10And in the gefen were shloshah sarigim (three branches); and it was as soon as it budded, its blossom shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth anavim (ripe grapes); 11And the kos Pharaoh was in my yad; and I took the anavim (grapes), and pressed them into kos Pharaoh, and I put the kos into the palm of Pharaoh. 12And Yosef said unto him, This is the pitron (interpretation) of it; The shloshet hasarigim are shloshet yamim. 13Within shloshet yamim shall Pharaoh lift up thine rosh, and restore thee unto thy ken (place, post); and thou shalt deliver kos Pharaoh into his yad, after the mishpat harishon (former practice) when thou wast his mashkeh. 14But remember me [see Amos 6:6] when it shall be well with thee, and show chesed now unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this bais; 15For indeed I was stolen away out of the Eretz HaIvrim; and here also have I done nothing that they should put me into the bor (dungeon). 16When the sar ha'ofim saw that he had done the pitron well, he said unto Yosef, I also was in my chalom, and, hinei, I had shloshah salei chori (three baskets of cakes) on my rosh; 17And in the sal haelyon (uppermost basket) there was all manner of food for Pharaoh; and ha'oph (the birds) did eat them out of the sal (basket) upon my rosh. 18And Yosef answered and said, This is the pitron (interpretation, meaning) thereof: The shloshet hasalim (three baskets) are shloshet yamim. 19Yet within shloshet yamim shall Pharaoh lift off thy rosh from on thee, and shall hang thee on an etz; and ha'oph (the birds) shall eat thy basar from off thee. 20And it came to pass on Yom HaShlishi, which was the yom huledet of Pharaoh, that he made a mishteh (feast) unto all his avadim; and he lifted up the rosh sar hamashkim and the rosh sar ha'ofim (head of the chief baker) in the midst of his avadim (officials). 21He restored the sar hamashkim unto his mashkeh; and he gave the kos into the palm of Pharaoh; 22But he hanged the sar ha'ofim: just as Yosef had made the pitron to them. 23Yet did not the sar hamashkim remember Yosef [see Amos 6:6] but forgot him.
40
The Cupbearer and the Baker
1 After these things happened, the cupbearer#sn The Hebrew term cupbearer corresponds to the Egyptian wb’, an official (frequently a foreigner) who often became a confidant of the king and wielded political power (see K. A. Kitchen, NBD3 248). Nehemiah held this post in Persia. to the king of Egypt and the royal baker#sn The baker may be the Egyptian retehti, the head of the bakers, who had privileges in the royal court. offended#sn The Hebrew verb translated offended here is the same one translated “sin” in 39:9. Perhaps there is an intended contrast between these officials, who deserve to be imprisoned, and Joseph, who refused to sin against God, but was thrown into prison in spite of his innocence. their master, the king of Egypt. 2 Pharaoh was enraged with his two officials,#tn The Hebrew word סָרִיס (saris), used here of these two men and of Potiphar (see 39:1), normally means “eunuch.” But evidence from Akkadian texts shows that in early times the title was used of a court official in general. Only later did it become more specialized in its use. the cupbearer and the baker, 3 so he imprisoned them in the house of the captain of the guard in the same facility where Joseph was confined. 4 The captain of the guard appointed Joseph to be their attendant, and he served them.#sn He served them. This is the same Hebrew verb, meaning “to serve as a personal attendant,” that was translated “became [his] servant” in 39:4.
They spent some time in custody.#tn Heb “they were days in custody.” 5 Both of them, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the prison, had a dream#tn Heb “dreamed a dream.” the same night.#tn Heb “a man his dream in one night.” Each man’s dream had its own meaning.#tn Heb “a man according to the interpretation of his dream.” 6 When Joseph came to them in the morning, he saw that they were looking depressed.#tn The verb זָעַף (za’af) only occurs here and Dan 1:10. It means “to be sick, to be emaciated,” probably in this case because of depression. 7 So he asked Pharaoh’s officials, who were with him in custody in his master’s house, “Why do you look so sad today?”#tn Heb “why are your faces sad today?” 8 They told him, “We both had dreams,#tn Heb “a dream we dreamed.” but there is no one to interpret them.” Joseph responded, “Don’t interpretations belong to God? Tell them#tn The word “them” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. to me.”
9 So the chief cupbearer told his dream to Joseph:#tn The Hebrew text adds “and he said to him.” This has not been translated because it is redundant in English. “In my dream, there was a vine in front of me. 10 On the vine there were three branches. As it budded, its blossoms opened and its clusters ripened into grapes. 11 Now Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, so I took the grapes, squeezed them into his#tn Heb “the cup of Pharaoh.” The pronoun “his” has been used here in the translation for stylistic reasons. cup, and put the cup in Pharaoh’s hand.”#sn The cupbearer’s dream is dominated by sets of three: three branches, three stages of growth, and three actions of the cupbearer.
12 “This is its meaning,” Joseph said to him. “The three branches represent#tn Heb “the three branches [are].” three days. 13 In three more days Pharaoh will reinstate you#tn Heb “Pharaoh will lift up your head.” This Hebrew idiom usually refers to restoring dignity, office, or power. It is comparable to the modern saying “someone can hold his head up high.” and restore you to your office. You will put Pharaoh’s cup in his hand, just as you did before#tn Heb “according to the former custom.” when you were cupbearer. 14 But remember me#tn Heb “but you have remembered me with you.” The perfect verbal form may be used rhetorically here to emphasize Joseph’s desire to be remembered. He speaks of the action as already being accomplished in order to make it clear that he expects it to be done. The form can be translated as volitional, expressing a plea or a request. when it goes well for you, and show#tn This perfect verbal form with the prefixed conjunction (and the two that immediately follow) carry the same force as the preceding perfect. me kindness.#tn Heb “deal with me [in] kindness.” Make mention#tn The verb זָכַר (zakhar) in the Hiphil stem means “to cause to remember, to make mention, to boast.” The implication is that Joseph would be pleased for them to tell his story and give him the credit due him so that Pharaoh would release him. Since Pharaoh had never met Joseph, the simple translation of “cause him to remember me” would mean little. of me to Pharaoh and bring me out of this prison,#tn Heb “house.” The word “prison” has been substituted in the translation for clarity. 15 for I really was kidnapped#tn The verb גָּנַב (ganav) means “to steal,” but in the Piel/Pual stem “to steal away.” The idea of “kidnap” would be closer to the sense, meaning he was stolen and carried off. The preceding infinitive absolute underscores the point Joseph is making. from the land of the Hebrews and I have done nothing wrong here for which they should put me in a dungeon.”
16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation of the first dream was favorable,#tn Heb “that [the] interpretation [was] good.” The words “the first dream” are supplied in the translation for clarity. he said to Joseph, “I also appeared in my dream and there were three baskets of white bread#tn Or “three wicker baskets.” The meaning of the Hebrew noun חֹרִי (khori, “white bread, cake”) is uncertain; some have suggested the meaning “wicker” instead. Comparison with texts from Ebla suggests the meaning “pastries made with white flour” (M. Dahood, “Eblaite h¬a-rí and Genesis 40,16 h£o„rî,” BN 13 [1980]: 14-16). on my head. 17 In the top basket there were baked goods of every kind for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating them from the basket that was on my head.”
18 Joseph replied, “This is its meaning: The three baskets represent#tn Heb “the three baskets [are].” three days. 19 In three more days Pharaoh will decapitate you#tn Heb “Pharaoh will lift up your head from upon you.” Joseph repeats the same expression from the first interpretation (see v. 13), but with the added words “from upon you,” which allow the statement to have a more literal and ominous meaning – the baker will be decapitated. and impale you on a pole. Then the birds will eat your flesh from you.”
20 On the third day it was Pharaoh’s birthday, so he gave a feast for all his servants. He “lifted up”#tn The translation puts the verb in quotation marks because it is used rhetorically here and has a double meaning. With respect to the cup bearer it means “reinstate” (see v. 13), but with respect to the baker it means “decapitate” (see v. 19). the head of the chief cupbearer and the head of the chief baker in the midst of his servants. 21 He restored the chief cupbearer to his former position#tn Heb “his cupbearing.” so that he placed the cup in Pharaoh’s hand, 22 but the chief baker he impaled, just as Joseph had predicted.#tn Heb “had interpreted for them.”sn The dreams were fulfilled exactly as Joseph had predicted, down to the very detail. Here was confirmation that Joseph could interpret dreams and that his own dreams were still valid. It would have been a tremendous encouragement to his faith, but it would also have been a great disappointment to spend two more years in jail. 23 But the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph – he forgot him.#tn The wayyiqtol verbal form here has a reiterative or emphasizing function.