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Genesis 36

36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.
36
Esau's Family
1Esau, also known as Edom, had many descendants. 2#Gn 26.34. He married three Canaanite women: The first was Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite; the second was Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah and the granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 3#Gn 28.9. the third was Basemath, who was Ishmael's daughter and Nebaioth's sister.
4-5Esau and his three wives had five sons while in Canaan. Adah's son was Eliphaz; Basemath's son was Reuel; Oholibamah's three sons were Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
6Esau took his children and wives, his relatives and servants, his animals and possessions he had acquired while in Canaan, and moved far from Jacob. 7He did this because the land was too crowded and could not support him and his brother with their flocks and herds. 8That's why Esau made his home in the hill country of Seir.
9-14Esau lived in the hill country of Seir and was the ancestor of the Edomites. Esau had three wives: Adah, Basemath, and Oholibamah. Here is a list of his descendants: Esau and Adah had a son named Eliphaz, whose sons were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. Timna was the other wife#36.9-14 other wife: See the note at 22.24. of Esau's son Eliphaz, and she had a son named Amalek.
Esau and Basemath had a son named Reuel, whose sons were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
Esau and Oholibamah had three sons: Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
Chiefs and Leaders in Edom
15Esau and Adah's oldest son was Eliphaz, and the clans that descended from him were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, 16Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These and Esau's other descendants lived in the land of Edom.
17The clans that descended from Esau and Basemath's son Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
18The clans that descended from Esau and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah were Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. 19All of these clans descended from Esau, who was known as Edom.
20Seir was from the Horite tribe that had lived in Edom before the time of Esau. The clans that had descended from him were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.
22Lotan's sons were Hori and Heman; his sister was Timna.
23Shobal's sons were Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
24Zibeon's sons were Aiah and Anah—the same Anah who found an oasis#36.24 an oasis: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text. in the desert while taking the donkeys of his father out to pasture.
25Anah's children were Dishon and Oholibamah.
26Dishon's sons were Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
27Ezer's sons were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28Dishan's sons were Uz and Aran.
29The clans of the Horites were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 30Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan, and they lived in the land of Seir.
31-39Before there were kings in Israel, the following kings ruled Edom one after another:
Bela son of Beor from Dinhabah;
Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah;
Husham from the land of Teman;
Hadad son of Bedad from Avith (Bedad had defeated the Midianites in Moab);
Samlah from Masrekah;
Shaul from the city of Rehoboth on the Euphrates River;
Baalhanan son of Achbor;
Hadar from the city of Pau (his wife Mehetabel was the daughter of Matred and the granddaughter of Mezahab).
40The clans that descended from Esau took their names from their families and the places where they lived. They are Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 41Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 42Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 43Magdiel, and Iram. These clans descended from Esau, who was known as Edom, the father of the Edomites. They took their names from the places where they settled.