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Genesis 36

36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.
36
1Now these [are] the generations of ‘Esav (hairy), who is Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)).
2‘Esav took his wives of the daughters of Kena’ani (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues); ‘Adah (an assembly) the daughter of Eilon (terebinth; mighty) the Hitti (terrorists), and Oholivamah (tent of the high place) the daughter of ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted) the daughter of Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed) the Hivi (villagers);
3And Basmat (spice) Yishma’el’s (He Will Hear God; God hears [EL]) daughter, sister of N’vayot (heights; vision).
4And ‘Adah (an assembly) bore to ‘Esav (hairy) Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold]; and Basmat (spice) bore Re’u’el (friend of EL/God);
5And Oholivamah (tent of the high place) bore Ye’ush (assembler), and Ya’lam (concealed), and Korach (ice; hail; bald): these are the sons of ‘Esav (hairy), which were born unto him in the land of Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues).
6And ‘Esav (hairy) took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, which he had got in the land of Kena’an (merchant; trader; or that humbles and subdues); and went into the country from the face of his brother Ya’akov (he who holds onto the heel of).
7For their riches were more than that they might dwell together; and the land wherein they were strangers could not bear them because of their cattle.
8In the following manner dwelt ‘Esav in mount Se’ir: ‘Esav [is] Edom.
9And these [are] the generations of ‘Esav (hairy) the father of the Edomim in mount Se’ir (hairy, shaggy; The Hairy Guys; riding the storm):
10These [are] the names of ‘Esav sons; Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] the son of ‘Adah (an assembly) the wife of ‘Esav (hairy), Re’u’el (friend of EL/God) the son of Basmat (spice) the wife of ‘Esav (hairy).
11And the sons of Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] were Teman [south] (right hand; south), Omar (Eloquent Speaker), Tzefo (Observant, watchtower), and Ga’Tam (a burnt valley; their lowing; their touch), and K’naz (hunter).
12And Timna (restrained) was concubine to Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] ’Esav’s (hairy) son; and she bore to Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] ’’Amalek [Dweller in a Valley] (People who are nipped in the Valley): these [were] the sons of ‘Adah (an assembly) ’Esav’s (hairy) wife.
13And these [are] the sons of Re’u’el (friend of EL/God); Nachat (rest), and Zerach (Rising; Dawning, Shining, Arising), Shammah [astonishment] (loss; desolation; astonishment), and Mizah [fear] (fear; a sudden disappearance or a copious discharge from the head; a falling out): these were the sons of Basmat (spice) ’Esav’s (hairy) wife.
14And these were the sons of Oholivamah (tent of the high place), the daughter of ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted) the daughter of Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed), ‘Esav’s (hairy) wife: and she bore to ‘Esav, Ye’ush (assembler), and Ya’lam (concealed), and Korach (ice; hail; bald).
15These [were] chieftains of the sons of ‘Esav: the sons of Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] the firstborn [son] of ‘Esav; chieftain Teman [south], chieftain Omar, chieftain Tzefo, chieftain K’naz,
16Chieftain Korach, chieftain Ga’Tam, [and] chieftain ‘‘Amalek [Dweller in a Valley]: these [are] the chieftains [that came] of Elifaz [my god -or God- is (fine) gold] in the land of Edom; these [were] the sons of ‘Adah.
17And these [are] the sons of Re’u’el ‘Esav’s son; chieftain Nachat, chieftain Zerach, chieftain Shammah [astonishment], chieftain Mizah [fear]: these [are] the chieftains [that came] of Re’u’el in the land of Edom; these [are] the sons of Basmat ‘Esav’s wife.
18And these [are] the sons of Oholivamah ‘Esav’s wife; chieftain Ye’ush, chieftain Ya’lam, chieftain Korach: these [were] the chieftains [that came] of Oholivamah the daughter of ‘Anah, ‘Esav’s wife.
19These [are] the sons of ‘Esav (hairy), who is Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)), and these [are] their chieftains.
20These [are] the sons of Se’ir (hairy, shaggy; The Hairy Guys; riding the storm) the Hori (cave dweller; freeborn prince), who inhabited the land; Lotan (covering), and Shoval (path; flowing; ear of corn), and Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed), and ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted),
21And Dishon (fatness; ashes), and Etzer (helper; treasure), and Dishan (threshing; a thresher): these [are] the chieftains of the Hori (cave dwellers; freeborn prince), the children of Se’ir (hairy, shaggy; The Hairy Guys; riding the storm) in the land of Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)).
22And the children of Lotan (covering) were Hori (cave dweller; freeborn prince) and Hemam (exterminating); and Lotan’s (covering) sister was Timna (restrained).
23And the children of Shoval (path; flowing; ear of corn) [were] these; ‘Alvan (tall; high), and Manachat (rest), and ‘Eival (stone; ancient heaps), Se’fo (bold; desert), and Onam (vigorous).
24And these [are] the children of Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed); both Ayah (falcon), and ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted): this was that ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted) that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed) his father.
25And the children of ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted) [were] these; Dishon (thresher; fatness; ashes), and Oholivamah (tent of the high place) the daughter of ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted).
26And these [are] the children of Dishon (thresher; fatness; ashes); Hemdan (desire), and Eshban (fire of discernment), and Yitran (advantage), and K’ran (lyre, anger).
27The children of Etzer (helper; treasure) [are] these; Bilhan [their decrepitude] (foolish confusion), and Za’avan (troubled; trembling), and ‘Akan (sharp-sighted; twisted)
28The children of Dishan (threshing; a thresher) [are] these; ‘Utz (deep contemplation on reality and justice), and Aran (joyous; cursed).
29These [are] the chieftains [that came] of the Hori (cave dwellers; freeborn prince); chieftain Lotan (covering), chieftain Shoval (path; flowing; ear of corn), chieftain Tziv’on (multi-colored; robber; dyed), chieftain ‘Anah (one who answers; afflicted),
30Chieftain Dishon (thresher; fatness; ashes), chieftain Etzer (helper; treasure), chieftain Dishan (threshing; a thresher): these [are] the chieftains [that came] of Hori (cave dweller; freeborn prince), among their chieftains in the land of Se’ir (hairy, shaggy; The Hairy Guys; riding the storm).
31And these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)), before there reigned any king over the children of Isra’el (he who holds onto God-The Creator).
32And Bela (destruction) the son of B’or reigned in Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)): and the name of his city was Dinhabah (he gives judgment).
33And Bela (destruction) died, and Yovav (To Call Shrilly) the son of Zerach (Rising; Dawning, Shining, Arising) of Botzrah (in tribulation or distress; fortress, sheepfold) reigned in his stead.
34And Yovav (To Call Shrilly) died, and Husham (haste) of the land of Temani (southward) reigned in his stead.
35And Husham (haste) died, and Hadad [mighty] (mighty; joy; noise; clamor) the son of B’dad (alone; solitary), who struck Midyan [Strife] (Strife; Place Of Judgment) in the field of Mo’av (of his father; Who’s Your Daddy!?), reigned in his stead: and the name of his city [was] ‘Avit (ruins).
36And Hadad [mighty] (mighty; joy; noise; clamor) died, and Samlah (his clothing; his left hand; his astonishment) of Masrekah (vineyard of noble vines) reigned in his stead.
37And Samlah (his clothing; his left hand; his astonishment) died, and Sha’ul (desired; asked for) of Rekhovot (wide open spaces, wild places/streets) by-the-river reigned in his stead.
38And Sha’ul (desired; asked for) died, and Ba’al-Chanan (lord of grace; gracious husband) the son of ‘Akhbor (a rat; a mouse; bruising) reigned in his stead.
39And Ba’al-Chanan (lord of grace; gracious husband) the son of ‘Akhbor (a rat; a mouse; bruising) died, and Hadad [mighty] (honour) reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Pau (bleating; howling; sighing); and his wife’s name was M’heitav’el (how good is God, favoured of God [EL]), the daughter of Matred (pushing forward; wand of government; expulsion), the daughter of Mei-Zahav (waters of gold; gilded).
40And these [are] the names of the chieftains [that came] of ‘Esav (hairy), according to their families, after their places, by their names; chieftain Timnah [Portion] (restrained; forbidding), chieftain ‘Alvah (evil; his rising up; his highness), chieftain Y’tet (terror),
41Chieftain Oholivamah (tent of the high place), chieftain Elah [an oak] (an oak; a curse; perjury), chieftain Pinon (darkness; pearl; gem),
42Chieftain K’naz (hunter), chieftain Teman [south] (right hand; south), chieftain Mivtzar (fortress; defending; forbidding; taking away),
43Chieftain Magdi’el (declaring God; chosen fruit of God; prince of God [EL]), chieftain ‘Iram (belonging to a city; a high heap; “fluid escaping into a body cavity” to them): these [be] the chieftains of Edom (red, ruddy (reddish hair or complexion)), according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he is ‘Esav (hairy) the father of the Edomim.