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Genesis 36

36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.
36
Esau Moves
1Now these are the records of the descendants of Esau, (that is, Edom).
2Esau took his [three] wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, the son of Zibeon the Hivite, 3and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebaioth. 4Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, and Basemath bore Reuel, 5and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These are the sons of Esau born to him in Canaan.
6Now Esau took his wives and his sons and his daughters and all the members of his household, and his livestock and all his cattle and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and he went to a land away from his brother Jacob. 7For their [great flocks and herds and] possessions made it impossible for them to live together [in the same region]; the land in which they lived temporarily could not support them because of their livestock. 8So Esau lived in the hill country of Seir; Esau is Edom.
Descendants of Esau
9These are the records of the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir. 10These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz, the son of Adah, Esau’s wife, and Reuel, the son of Basemath, Esau’s wife. 11And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. 12And Timna was a #See note 22:24.concubine of Eliphaz, Esau’s son; and she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These are the sons of Adah, Esau’s wife. 13These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife. 14And these are the sons of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife, the daughter of Anah, the son of Zibeon. She bore to Esau: Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
15These are the tribal chiefs of the sons of Esau: The sons of Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau: Chiefs Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, 16Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These are the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; they are the sons of Adah. 17These are the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son: Chiefs Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah. These are the chiefs of Reuel in the land of Edom; they are the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife. 18These are the sons of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife: Chiefs Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These are the chiefs born of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, Esau’s wife. 19These are the sons of Esau, (that is, Edom), and these are their chiefs.
20These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These are the chiefs of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom. 22The sons of Lotan are Hori and Hemam; and Lotan’s sister is Timna. 23The sons of Shobal are these: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. 24These are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. This is the Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of Zibeon his father. 25The children of Anah are these: Dishon and Oholibamah [Esau’s wife], the daughter of Anah. 26These are the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 27Ezer’s sons are these: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. 28The sons of Dishan are these: Uz and Aran. 29The Horite chiefs are these: Chiefs Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 30Dishon, Ezer, Dishan. These are the Horite chiefs, according to their various clans in the land of Seir.
31And these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites: 32Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. 33Now Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned as his successor. 34Then Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned as his successor. 35And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, reigned as his successor. The name of his [walled] city was Avith. 36Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah succeeded him. 37Then Samlah died, and Shaul of Rehoboth on the river [Euphrates] reigned as his successor. 38And Shaul died, and Baal-hanan son of Achbor reigned as his successor. 39Baal-hanan the son of Achbor died, and then #In 1 Chr 1:50, Hadad.Hadar reigned [as his successor]. His [walled] city was #In 1 Chr 1:50, Pai.Pau; his wife’s name was Mehetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
40And these are the names of the tribal chiefs of Esau, according to their families and places of residence, by their names: Chiefs Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 41Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 42Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 43Magdiel, and Iram. These are the tribal chiefs of Edom (that is, of Esau the father of the Edomites), according to their dwelling places in the land of their possession.