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Genesis 36

36
The Descendants of Esau
1 What follows is the account of Esau (also known as Edom).#sn Chapter 36 records what became of Esau. It will list both his actual descendants as well as the people he subsumed under his tribal leadership, people who were aboriginal Edomites. The chapter is long and complicated (see further J. R. Bartlett, “The Edomite King-List of Genesis 36:31-39 and 1 Chronicles 1:43-50,” JTS 16 [1965]: 301-14; and W. J. Horowitz, “Were There Twelve Horite Tribes?” CBQ 35 [1973]: 69-71). In the format of the Book of Genesis, the line of Esau is “tidied up” before the account of Jacob is traced (37:2). As such the arrangement makes a strong contrast with Jacob. As F. Delitzsch says, “secular greatness in general grows up far more rapidly than spiritual greatness” (New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). In other words, the progress of the world far out distances the progress of the righteous who are waiting for the promise.
2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites:#tn Heb “from the daughters of Canaan.” Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon the Hivite, 3 in addition to Basemath the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.
4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the people in his household, his livestock, his animals, and all his possessions which he had acquired in the land of Canaan and went to a land some distance away from#tn Heb “from before.” Jacob his brother 7 because they had too many possessions to be able to stay together and the land where they had settled#tn Heb “land of their settlements.” was not able to support them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau (also known as Edom) lived in the hill country of Seir.#tn Traditionally “Mount Seir,” but in this case the expression בְּהַר שֵׂעִיר (bÿhar se’ir) refers to the hill country or highlands of Seir.
9 This is the account of Esau, the father#sn The term father in genealogical records needs to be carefully defined. It can refer to a literal father, a grandfather, a political overlord, or a founder. of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and granddaughter#tn Heb “daughter,” but see Gen 36:24-25. of Zibeon: She bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.
15 These were the chiefs#tn Or “clan leaders” (so also throughout this chapter). among the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah,#tc The Samaritan Pentateuch omits the name “Korah” (see v. 11 and 1 Chr 1:36). chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Adah.
17 These were the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these were the sons#tn Or “grandsons” (NIV); “descendants” (NEB). of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
19 These were the sons of Esau (also known as Edom), and these were their chiefs.
20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite,#sn The same pattern of sons, grandsons, and chiefs is now listed for Seir the Horite. “Seir” is both the name of the place and the name of the ancestor of these tribes. The name “Horite” is probably not to be identified with “Hurrian.” The clan of Esau settled in this area, intermarried with these Horites and eventually dispossessed them, so that they all became known as Edomites (Deut 2:12 telescopes the whole development). who were living in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, the descendants#tn Or “sons.” of Seir in the land of Edom.
22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam;#tn Heb “Hemam”; this is probably a variant spelling of “Homam” (1 Chr 1:39); cf. NRSV, NLT “Heman.” Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho,#tn This name is given as “Shephi” in 1 Chr 1:40. and Onam.
24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot springs#tn The meaning of this Hebrew term is uncertain; Syriac reads “water” and Vulgate reads “hot water.” in the wilderness as he pastured the donkeys of his father Zibeon).
25 These were the children#tn Heb “sons,” but since a daughter is included in the list, the word must be translated “children.” of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.
26 These were the sons of Dishon:#tn Heb “Dishan,” but this must be either a scribal error or variant spelling, since “Dishan” is mentioned in v. 28 (see also v. 21). Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
29 These were the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chief lists in the land of Seir.
31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:#tn Or perhaps “before any Israelite king ruled over [them].”
32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his place.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
35 When Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place; the name of his city was Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah reigned in his place.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth by the River#tn Typically the Hebrew expression “the River” refers to the Euphrates River, but it is not certain whether that is the case here. Among the modern English versions which take this as a reference to the Euphrates are NASB, NCV, NRSV, CEV, NLT. Cf. NAB, TEV “Rehoboth-on-the-River.” reigned in his place.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
39 When Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor died, Hadad#tc Most mss of the MT read “Hadar” here; “Hadad” is the reading found in some Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and Syriac (cf. also 1 Chr 1:50). reigned in his place; the name of his city was Pau.#tn The name of the city is given as “Pai” in 1 Chr 1:50. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
40 These were the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements#tn Or perhaps “territories”; Heb “dwelling places.” in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.
36
Genesis 36
1¶ Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom.
2Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon, the Hittite; Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon, the Hivite;
3and Bashemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebajoth.
4And Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz, and Bashemath bore Reuel,
5and Aholibamah bore Jeush and Jaalam and Korah: these are the sons of Esau, who were born unto him in the land of Canaan.
6And Esau took his wives and his sons and his daughters and all the persons of his house and his cattle and all his beasts and all his substance, which he had got in the land of Canaan, and went into another country from the face of his brother Jacob.
7For their riches were more than that they might dwell together, and the land in which they were strangers could not bear them because of their livestock.
8Thus dwelt Esau in Mount Seir; Esau is Edom.
9¶ And these are the lineages of Esau, the father of the Edomites in Mount Seir.
10These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz, the son of Adah, the wife of Esau; Reuel, the son of Bashemath, the wife of Esau.
11And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, Esau’s son, and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek: these are the sons of Adah, Esau’s wife.
13And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah; these were the sons of Bashemath, Esau’s wife.
14And these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon, Esau’s wife: she gave birth unto Esau Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah.
15These are dukes of the sons of Esau. The sons of Eliphaz, the firstborn son of Esau: duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz,
16duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.
17And these are the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath Esau’s wife.
18And these are the sons of Aholibamah, Esau’s wife: duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah; these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau’s wife.
19These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these are their dukes.
20¶ These are the sons of Seir, the Horite, who inhabited the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,
21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; these are the dukes of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom.
22And the sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam, and Lotan’s sister was Timna.
23And the sons of Shobal were these: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
24And these are the sons of Zibeon: both Ajah and Anah; this was that Anah that invented mules in the wilderness as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father.
25And the children {Heb. sons} of Anah were these: Dishon and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah.
26And these are the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
27The sons of Ezer are these: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28The sons of Dishan are these: Uz and Aran.
29These are the dukes that came of the Horites: duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah,
30duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan; these are the dukes that came of Hori; by their dukedoms in the land of Seir.
31¶ And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.
32And Bela, the son of Beor, reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33And Bela died, and Jobab, the son of Zerah of Bozrah, reigned in his stead.
34And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani reigned in his stead.
35And Husham died, and Hadad, the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead; and the name of his city was Avith.
36And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.
37And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.
38And Saul died, and Baalhanan, the son of Achbor, reigned in his stead.
39And Baalhanan, the son of Achbor, died, and Hadar reigned in his stead; and the name of his city was Pau; and his wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
40And these are the names of the dukes that came of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names: duke Timnah, duke Alvah, duke Jetheth,
41duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon,
42duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar,
43duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these were the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession. This is the Esau, the father of Edom.