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Genesis 20

20
Abraham and Abimelech
1 Abraham journeyed from there to the Negev#tn Or “the South [country]”; Heb “the land of the Negev.”sn Negev is the name for the southern desert region in the land of Canaan. region and settled between Kadesh and Shur. While he lived as a temporary resident#tn Heb “and he sojourned.” in Gerar, 2 Abraham said about his wife Sarah, “She is my sister.” So Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent for Sarah and took her.
3 But God appeared#tn Heb “came.” to Abimelech in a dream at night and said to him, “You are as good as dead#tn Heb “Look, you [are] dead.” The Hebrew construction uses the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) with a second person pronominal particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) with by the participle. It is a highly rhetorical expression. because of the woman you have taken, for she is someone else’s wife.”#tn Heb “and she is owned by an owner.” The disjunctive clause is causal or explanatory in this case.
4 Now Abimelech had not gone near her. He said, “Lord,#tn The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay). would you really slaughter an innocent nation?#tn Apparently Abimelech assumes that God’s judgment will fall on his entire nation. Some, finding the reference to a nation problematic, prefer to emend the text and read, “Would you really kill someone who is innocent?” See E. A. Speiser, Genesis (AB), 149. 5 Did Abraham#tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. not say to me, ‘She is my sister’? And she herself said,#tn Heb “and she, even she.” ‘He is my brother.’ I have done this with a clear conscience#tn Heb “with the integrity of my heart.” and with innocent hands!”
6 Then in the dream God replied to him, “Yes, I know that you have done this with a clear conscience.#tn Heb “with the integrity of your heart.” That is why I have kept you#tn Heb “and I, even I, kept you.” from sinning against me and why#tn Heb “therefore.” I did not allow you to touch her. 7 But now give back the man’s wife. Indeed#tn Or “for,” if the particle is understood as causal (as many English translations do) rather than asseverative. he is a prophet#sn For a discussion of the term prophet see N. Walker, “What is a Nabhi?” ZAW 73 (1961): 99-100. and he will pray for you; thus you will live.#tn After the preceding jussive (or imperfect), the imperative with vav conjunctive here indicates result.sn He will pray for you that you may live. Abraham was known as a man of God whose prayer would be effectual. Ironically and sadly, he was also known as a liar. But if you don’t give her back,#tn Heb “if there is not you returning.” The suffix on the particle becomes the subject of the negated clause. know that you will surely die#tn The imperfect is preceded by the infinitive absolute to make the warning emphatic. along with all who belong to you.”
8 Early in the morning#tn Heb “And Abimelech rose early in the morning and he summoned.” Abimelech summoned#tn The verb קָרָא (qara’) followed by the preposition לְ (lamed) means “to summon.” all his servants. When he told them about all these things,#tn Heb “And he spoke all these things in their ears.” they#tn Heb “the men.” This has been replaced by the pronoun “they” in the translation for stylistic reasons. were terrified. 9 Abimelech summoned Abraham and said to him, “What have you done to us? What sin did I commit against you that would cause you to bring such great guilt on me and my kingdom?#tn Heb “How did I sin against you that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin?” The expression “great sin” refers to adultery. For discussion of the cultural background of the passage, see J. J. Rabinowitz, “The Great Sin in Ancient Egyptian Marriage Contracts,” JNES 18 (1959): 73, and W. L. Moran, “The Scandal of the ‘Great Sin’ at Ugarit,” JNES 18 (1959): 280-81. You have done things to me that should not be done!”#tn Heb “Deeds which should not be done you have done to me.” The imperfect has an obligatory nuance here. 10 Then Abimelech asked#tn Heb “And Abimelech said to.” Abraham, “What prompted you to do this thing?”#tn Heb “What did you see that you did this thing?” The question implies that Abraham had some motive for deceiving Abimelech.
11 Abraham replied, “Because I thought,#tn Heb “Because I said.” ‘Surely no one fears God in this place. They will kill me because of#tn Heb “over the matter of.” my wife.’ 12 What’s more,#tn Heb “but also.” she is indeed my sister, my father’s daughter, but not my mother’s daughter. She became my wife. 13 When God made me wander#tn The Hebrew verb is plural. This may be a case of grammatical agreement with the name for God, which is plural in form. However, when this plural name refers to the one true God, accompanying predicates are usually singular in form. Perhaps Abraham is accommodating his speech to Abimelech’s polytheistic perspective. (See GKC 463 §145.i.) If so, one should translate, “when the gods made me wander.” from my father’s house, I told her, ‘This is what you can do to show your loyalty to me:#tn Heb “This is your loyal deed which you can do for me.” Every place we go, say about me, “He is my brother.”’”
14 So Abimelech gave#tn Heb “took and gave.” sheep, cattle, and male and female servants to Abraham. He also gave his wife Sarah back to him. 15 Then Abimelech said, “Look, my land is before you; live wherever you please.”#tn Heb “In the [place that is] good in your eyes live!”
16 To Sarah he said, “Look, I have given a thousand pieces of silver#sn A thousand pieces [Heb “shekels”] of silver. The standards for weighing money varied considerably in the ancient Near East, but the generally accepted weight for the shekel is 11.5 grams (0.4 ounce). This makes the weight of silver here 11.5 kilograms, or 400 ounces (about 25 pounds). to your ‘brother.’#sn To your ‘brother.’ Note the way that the king refers to Abraham. Was he being sarcastic? It was surely a rebuke to Sarah. What is amazing is how patient this king was. It is proof that the fear of God was in that place, contrary to what Abraham believed (see v. 11). This is compensation for you so that you will stand vindicated before all who are with you.”#tn Heb “Look, it is for you a covering of the eyes, for all who are with you, and with all, and you are set right.” The exact meaning of the statement is unclear. Apparently it means that the gift of money somehow exonerates her in other people’s eyes. They will not look on her as compromised (see G. J. Wenham, Genesis [WBC], 2:74).
17 Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech, as well as his wife and female slaves so that they were able to have children. 18 For the Lord#tn In the Hebrew text the clause begins with “because.” had caused infertility to strike every woman#tn Heb had completely closed up every womb.” In the Hebrew text infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.sn The Lord had closed up every womb. This fact indicates that Sarah was in Abimelech’s household for weeks or months before the dream revelation was given (20:6-7). No one in his household could have children after Sarah arrived on the scene. in the household of Abimelech because he took#tn Heb “because of.” The words “he took” are supplied in the translation for clarity. Sarah, Abraham’s wife.
20
1And Avraham journeyed from there toward the Negev region, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. 2And Avraham said of Sarah his isha, She is my achot; and Avimelech Melech Gerar sent, and took Sarah. 3But Elohim came to Avimelech in a chalom halailah, and said to him, See, thou art met (dead), for the isha which thou hast taken; for she is be'ulat ba'al (married of a husband). 4But Avimelech had not come near her; and he said, Adonoi, wilt Thou slay also a goy tzaddik? 5Said he not unto me, She is my achot? and she, even she herself said, He is achi: in the tohm (integrity, guilelessness) of my lev and with clean hands of my innocency have I done this. 6And HaElohim said unto him in a chalom, Yea, I have da'as that thou didst this in the tohm (integrity, guilelessness) of thy lev; for I also withheld thee from sinning against Me; therefore allowed I thee not to touch her. 7Now therefore restore the ish his isha; for he is a navi, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine. 8Therefore Avimelech rose early in the boker, and called all his avadim, and told all these things in their ears; and the anashim were very afraid. 9Then Avimelech called Avraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? and how have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my mamlechah (kingdom) a chata'ah gedolah (great sin)? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done. 10And Avimelech said unto Avraham, What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing? 11And Avraham said, Because I thought, Surely the yirat Elohim is not in this place; and they will slay me on account of my isha. 12And yet indeed she is my achot; she is the bat avi, but not the bat immi; and she became my isha. 13And it came to pass, when Elohim caused me to wander from my bais avi, that I said unto her, This is thy chesed which thou shalt show unto me; at every place where we shall come, say of me, He is achi. 14And Avimelech took tzon, and oxen, and avadim, and shfachot, and gave them unto Avraham, and restored to him Sarah his isha. 15And Avimelech said, Hinei, my land is before thee; dwell where it pleaseth thee. 16And unto Sarah he said, Hinei, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of kesef; hinei, it is to thee a kesut einayim (covering of the eyes, exoneration), unto all that are with thee, and with all other; thus she was vindicated. 17So Avraham davened unto Elohim: and Elohim healed Avimelech, and his isha, and his maidservants so that they bore children. 18For Hashem had fast closed up kol rechem (every womb) of the bais Avimelech, on account of Sarah Avraham's isha.